Grants Homeowner Savings Tips

How to get a $10K grant for home improvement

Are you gazing at your dated kitchen cupboards and fantasizing about Chip and Joanna Gaines coming through your front door to do a makeover? Even worse, are you grappling with the urgent call of a leaking roof? 

Trust me, that feeling is awful. But at the same time, it’s all too familiar.

Many householders are right there with you, flipping through piles of bills and project cost estimates with that heavy sense of financial dread.

But hold on. There’s a glimmer of hope I’d like to share. Imagine getting your hands on a generous $10,000 grant aimed at bringing new life to your space — all without wreaking havoc on your bank account.

Believe it or not, these grants aren’t just wishful thinking; they’re real parts of government initiatives made to support homeowners in your exact situation. 

With some firsthand knowledge and diligent research tucked away in my back pocket, I’m eager to walk you down the path toward securing this economic lifeline.

In this blog post, we’ll examine alternative funding avenues and the associated eligibility details.  By the end of this post, we hope that you’ll be able to turn your home improvement daydreams into solid reality.

So take heart and read along. We’re about to tackle this challenge one step at a time!

What is a home improvement grant?

Are you a homeowner struggling to find the funds needed for home improvements? You’re not alone. Many people face this same challenge every day. In fact, nearly half of Americans can’t cover an unexpected $1,000 expense!

Get this: Did you know that Americans can receive up to $10,000 with no strings attached to update their homes? 

As a homeowner myself, I understand the frustration of wanting to make necessary repairs or improvements but not having the financial means to do so. That’s why I’ve done extensive research and found a solution that could help us all get the assistance we need.

It turns out that there are a number of home improvement grants available to people like you and me. Whether you’re looking to repair a broken window or fix a crumbling chimney, you may qualify for assistance to make these projects more affordable.

What types of home improvement grants are available?

Home Improvement Contractor

Take my word for it: Hunting for ways to fund your home renovation can be as tricky as the project itself.

Luckily, there’s a variety of grants out there designed to help with home improvement, which I’ll summarize in this section:

  1. Single Family Housing Repair Loans & Grants: Often known as the Section 504 Home Repair program, this provides loans and grants to homeowners needing major repairs or improvements. If you meet the criteria and live in a rural area, you could qualify for up to $10,000 in grant money and additional loan assistance.
  1. HUD’s Community Development Block Grant (CDBG): This program focuses on providing funds to repair and upgrade homes — especially in communities that need a boost. Your city or county applies for these funds and distributes them locally.
  1. Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP): Aimed at low-income families, WAP helps make your home more energy-efficient. This program typically funds improvements like improving insulation or upgrading heating systems.
  1. Home Investment Partnerships Program: Through state and local governments, this HUD grant works towards repairing homes and making them more accessible for elderly or disabled individuals. The goal is not just to beautify but also to make houses safer.
  1. Veterans Housing Grants: If you’re a veteran with a disability due to service, you could receive funding for home modifications through grants such as the Specially Adapted Housing (SAH) grant or the Special Housing Adaptation (SHA) grant.
  1. FHA Rehabilitation Loans: While technically a loan program through the Federal Housing Administration, it allows borrowers to roll in additional funds for property improvements into their mortgage financing.
  1. USDA Rural Development Home Repair Grants: Similar to the 504 program but tailored specifically for certain rural areas; if you’re older than 62 and facing financial constraints, this might be an opportunity for assistance without repayment requirements.
  1. Energy efficiency incentives: Some states offer grants or rebates related specifically to improving energy efficiency in your home — think solar panel installations or high-efficiency HVAC systems.

Grants for home improvement: Eligibility requirements

To qualify for a home improvement grant, you must meet specific eligibility criteria:

  • Homeowners should demonstrate a financial need and provide documentation of their income level.
  • Applicants must own and live in the property for which they are seeking the grant.
  • Individuals over 18 years old are generally eligible to apply for these grants.
  • In some cases, homeowners may need to have a certain credit score to be considered for the grant.
  • Some grants have specific requirements based on location or property type, so applicants should review these carefully.
  • Certain government programs may prioritize funding for seniors, low-income families, or individuals with disabilities.
  • Maintaining compliance with local building codes and zoning regulations is essential in qualifying for a home improvement grant.

One caveat: There’s a lifetime limit of $10,000!

Home improvement grants typically have a lifetime limit of $10,000. This means that individuals can receive up to this amount over time and use the money to update their homes with no strings attached.

Any way you look at it, these grants are an incredible financial resource the government offers to help homeowners improve their properties without incurring excessive debt or financial strain. Eligibility for these grants depends on specific programs and requirements. As such, it’s crucial to thoroughly research and understand the terms before you apply.

How to apply for a home improvement grant

Contacting local organizations and government agencies that provide home improvement grants is the first step in applying for a grant. 

Additionally, considering applying for loans or exploring other financing options can also help you secure funding for your home improvement projects.

Contacting local organizations

To contact local organizations for home improvement grants, I recommend following these steps:

  1. Research local government agencies and nonprofit organizations that offer home improvement grants.
  2. Reach out to your city or county housing department to inquire about available programs and eligibility requirements.
  3. Utilize online resources such as the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) website to find local contacts and information on grant opportunities.
  4. Attend community events or workshops hosted by local organizations to learn more about available grants and how to apply for them.
  5. Network with neighbors, friends, or family members who have received home improvement grants for recommendations and advice on contacting local organizations.

Applying for loans

To explore additional funding options for home improvement, I started looking to apply for loans. Many homeowners opt for home improvement loans as a way to finance their projects. These loans are available through various financial institutions and can be used to cover the costs of renovations, repairs, or upgrades.

One popular option is a cash-out refinance, which allows homeowners to access the equity in their homes by refinancing their mortgage and receiving a lump sum of cash. Another option is a home equity line of credit (HELOC), providing access to funds as needed within an approved credit limit secured by the homeowner’s equity.

Additionally, Weatherization Assistance Programs may offer low-income individuals assistance with financing necessary home improvements.

Other financing options for home improvement

If grants are not an option, there are alternative ways to finance your home improvement project. From cash-out refinancing to home equity lines of credit, explore these financing options to get the funding you need.

Cash-out refinance

I consider a cash-out refinance as a way to access funds for home improvement. If you go this route, you can refinance your existing mortgage for more than what you currently owe and receive the difference in cash.

This could allow you to use the additional funds for renovations without taking out a separate loan. Additionally, utilizing a cash-out refinance may provide tax benefits and potentially lower interest rates compared to other financing options.

By considering a cash-out refinance, you can tap into their home’s equity and secure funds for crucial repairs or upgrades. This could be an advantageous strategy for those seeking financial resources without adding on additional debt through separate loans or credit lines.


Home Equity Line of Credit brief

To leverage the equity in your home, you may want to consider taking out a HELOC. This allows you to borrow against the value of your property and use the funds for home improvement projects like renovations or repairs.

With a HELOC, you can access a line of credit, withdraw funds as needed, and only pay interest on the amount you use. This flexible financing option provides the freedom to manage home improvement expenses efficiently while utilizing the equity built up in my property.

By using a HELOC, homeowners have the opportunity to tap into their home’s equity and secure financing for various improvement projects. This financial tool enables individuals to leverage their property’s value without having to sell it or refinance their existing mortgage.

Weatherization Assistance Programs

Weatherization Assistance Programs are designed to help homeowners make their homes more energy-efficient and comfortable. These programs provide financial assistance for eligible individuals to improve insulation, seal air leaks, and upgrade heating and cooling systems. Such assistance helps lower energy bills while reducing the home’s environmental impact.

  1. Improve insulation: Weatherization Assistance Programs offer grants to upgrade insulation in homes, which helps maintain a comfortable temperature and reduces energy consumption.
  2. Seal air leaks: Funding from these programs can be used to seal air leaks in windows, doors, and other areas of the home to prevent heat loss in the winter and maintain cool air in the summer.
  3. Upgrade heating systems: Homeowners can use the grants to upgrade old heating systems to more efficient options, reducing energy costs and improving overall comfort.
  4. Upgrade cooling systems: Grants also cover upgrading cooling systems to improve energy efficiency, ensuring a comfortable living environment during hot weather while reducing electricity expenses.
  5. Professional assessment: Weatherization Assistance Programs may include a professional assessment of the home’s energy usage and recommendations for improvements based on individual needs.
  6. Environmental benefits: By participating in these programs, homeowners reduce carbon emissions by using less energy for heating and cooling their homes.
  7. Financial relief: Accessing these grants provides financial relief by lowering ongoing utility costs through improved energy efficiency measures.

Grants for home improvement: FAQs

To learn more about grants and funding options for home improvement, let’s take a look at some of the most commonly asked questions in this space.

Who is eligible for government grants?

Government grants for home improvement are available to homeowners who meet specific eligibility requirements set by the relevant programs. These requirements may vary based on the type of grant and the organization providing it. But generally, individuals with low to moderate incomes, seniors, veterans, and people with disabilities are among those eligible for government home improvement grants.

Additionally, some programs may prioritize households with urgent repair needs or safety concerns. It’s essential to check the specific criteria for each grant program to determine eligibility before applying.

The availability of these grants provides significant financial relief to many homeowners in need of assistance with property repairs and improvements. Understanding the eligibility requirements can help you navigate your options and access valuable resources to support home renovation projects effectively.

How can I get a grant for home improvement?

To get a grant for home improvement, you need to research and identify government or local programs that offer financial assistance for property upgrades. Contacting these organizations and completing the application process is essential in accessing these grants.

Eligibility requirements vary based on specific programs, so it’s crucial to understand the criteria before applying. Additionally, exploring other financing options like cash-out refinance or HELOCs can provide alternatives for funding home renovations if grant eligibility is not met.

What other financing options are available?

When seeking financing for home improvements, homeowners have various options to consider. Cash-out refinance allows you to replace your mortgage with a new one for more than the amount owed, receiving the difference in cash.

Another option is a HELOC, where homeowners can borrow money against the equity of their homes. Additionally, Weatherization Assistance Programs provide financial aid to eligible individuals for making energy-efficient improvements to their homes.

These programs are essential resources that can help homeowners secure funding for necessary repairs and updates.

Ready to apply for a grant for home improvement?

Home improvement grants provide valuable financial assistance to homeowners in need of repairs or upgrades for their properties. Understanding the eligibility requirements and available funding options is crucial for securing a $10,000 grant.

By contacting local organizations, exploring loan opportunities, and considering other financing options such as cash-out refinance or HELOC, you can take steps toward accessing the resources you need for home improvements.

The bottom line? Exploring these financial avenues can help you make informed decisions about securing funds to enhance your living space.

Frequently asked questions: Home improvement grants

1. What are home renovation grants and how can I get one?

Home renovation grants are financial aids provided by the government for homeowners to improve their properties. You can apply through homeowner assistance programs or seek out housing rehabilitation assistance.

2. Can low-income individuals receive home improvement funding?

Yes, there are home repair grants specifically for low-income individuals offered as part of residential repair grants or federal assistance for home improvements.

3. Are there special grants for seniors needing home repairs?

Absolutely! Seniors can access specific property improvement grants designed to help with their home maintenance needs.

4. Where do I find information on getting a $10,000 grant for my home improvement project?

You should explore government websites that detail different grant opportunities like those intended for property renovations and check if you meet the criteria these homeowner assistance programs require.

Grants Guides Homeowner Tips

Who Is Eligible For A Government Home Improvement Grant?

9 Qualifications

If your home needs fixing, money can be a big worry. 

Good news: Government grants exist to help with these expenses. 

This blog will guide you through some qualifications you need for a government home improvement grant, so you’ll know if you’re eligible.

Keep reading to find out whether you might qualify for a government home improvement grant.

Key Takeaways

  • Government home improvement grants offer free financial help for repairs and upgrades, including loans through programs like Section 504 Home Repair Program.
  • Eligibility often depends on income level, age, property type, special circumstances such as being a veteran or having a disability; low-income homeowners and senior citizens are common qualifiers.
  • The grant can be used for various purposes such as fixing essential house systems, improving energy efficiency, or making accessibility modifications for people with disabilities.
  • Native American homeowners have specific grant programs available to assist with home improvements within their communities.
  • Grants vary in amount but do not generally require repayment, providing significant financial relief without increasing debt.

What is a government home improvement grant?

A government home improvement grant is essentially free money given by the government to help homeowners make necessary repairs and upgrades to their homes. Unlike loans, these grants do not require repayment, making them a financially attractive option for those who qualify.

They target specific needs such as safety improvements, energy efficiency, or accessibility modifications for individuals with disabilities. Homeowners might use this support to fix roofs, update heating systems, or even install ramps.

It’s a way for the government to invest in communities by ensuring safe and healthy living environments.

You could find yourself eligible for one of these grants if you meet certain criteria set by various federal, state, or local programs designed to assist different groups within the population.

Each program has its own rules and qualifications which often include income level, age, type of property owned and special circumstances like being a veteran or living in a rural area.

Taking advantage of these opportunities can significantly reduce the financial burden of maintaining your home and improve your quality of life.

How do you qualify for a government home improvement grant?

There are several qualifications for government home improvement grants, including low-income homeowners, single-family housing repair loans, the Home Investments Partnership Program (HOME), senior citizens, and veterans.

If you fall into any of these categories, you may be eligible for assistance with your home improvement projects.

1. Low-income homeowners

If you’re a low-income homeowner, government home improvement grants could be your ticket to fixing up your house without the financial strain. These grants are designed to help those who might not otherwise afford the necessary repairs and upgrades their homes require.

You might qualify based on your income level, which is often compared against the median income in your area.

Living in a safe and comfortable environment shouldn’t be out of reach just because money is tight. That’s why these grants can cover a range of projects, from essential structural repairs to energy-efficient updates.

If you fall under this category, it is worth exploring how government assistance can make maintaining or improving your home achievable without sinking into debt.

2. Single-family housing repair loans

Are you in need of financial help to fix up your home? Single-family housing repair loans are here for that very purpose. They can cover a range of repairs and improvements such as fixing the roof, updating electrical wiring, or making your home more energy-efficient.

Typically offered by the government, these loans aim to make homes safe and livable for families.

To tap into this resource, you should own and occupy your house and meet certain income criteria which demonstrate a genuine need for assistance. The beauty of these loans is their low-interest rates and manageable repayment options.

So don’t let the cost of necessary repairs keep you from maintaining your family’s haven. Secure a loan that suits your situation and start turning your house back into a safe, comfortable home today.

3. Home Investments Partnership Program (HOME)

The Home Investments Partnership Program (HOME) is a government initiative that provides funding to state and local governments for the purpose of creating affordable housing for low-income households.

Through HOME, qualified individuals can receive assistance with home repairs and improvements aimed at ensuring safe and habitable living conditions. This program serves as a valuable resource for prospective homeowners who may not have the financial means to address necessary renovations on their own.

Individuals eligible for the HOME program include low-income households, veterans, senior citizens, people with disabilities, Native Americans, and others in need of affordable housing solutions.

4. Senior citizens

Senior citizens can qualify for government home improvement grants to make necessary repairs and modifications to their homes. This assistance can help them afford critical upgrades, such as installing ramps or handrails, as well as addressing health and safety concerns in their living environment.

These grants aim to provide senior citizens with the support they need to continue living independently and safely in their homes. By taking advantage of these opportunities, older adults can create a more accessible and comfortable living space that meets their evolving needs.

Whether it’s structural improvements or accessibility modifications, government home improvement grants offer vital resources for senior citizens looking to enhance the functionality and safety of their homes.

5. Area Agency on Aging

The Area Agency on Aging provides valuable resources and support for elderly individuals seeking assistance with home improvements. They offer programs specifically tailored to address the unique needs of senior citizens, including grants and loans for essential repairs and modifications.

These initiatives aim to improve safety, accessibility, and overall living conditions for older adults, ensuring that they can age in place comfortably.

If you are a senior citizen looking to make necessary upgrades to your home but have limited financial means, exploring the options available through the Area Agency on Aging could be beneficial for you.

Their specialized services cater to the specific requirements of older homeowners, helping them maintain a safe and functional living environment as they age gracefully.

6. Section 504 Home Repair Program

The Section 504 Home Repair Program offers loans to low-income homeowners aged 62 years or older. These loans can be used to remove health and safety hazards as well as to make the home more accessible for household members with disabilities.

The program aims to provide a safe living environment for those who may otherwise be unable to afford necessary repairs.

You can apply for the Section 504 Home Repair Program through your local rural development office. Once approved, funds from this program can be used for a variety of repairs, such as fixing leaky roofs, installing or repairing plumbing systems, and making homes more energy-efficient.

7. Veterans

Veterans can qualify for government home improvement grants to make necessary repairs and upgrades to their homes. This assistance is available through programs designed specifically to support veterans in maintaining safe and comfortable living environments.

By meeting the eligibility requirements, veterans can access funds to address essential home improvements, ensuring that their housing remains suitable for their needs.

If you are a veteran and need financial assistance to improve your home, explore the various government programs tailored to support veterans with essential housing repairs and upgrades.

8. People with disabilities

For people with disabilities, government home improvement grants can provide crucial support for making necessary modifications to their homes. These grants can help in installing ramps, widening doorways, or creating accessible bathrooms and kitchens, improving mobility and independence within the home.

It’s important to note that these grants are designed to address specific accessibility needs, ensuring that individuals with disabilities can live comfortably and safely in their own homes.

To qualify for a government home improvement grant as a person with disabilities, there are specific criteria relating to your disability status and the modifications required due to your condition.

9. Native Americans

Native Americans may be eligible for government home improvement grants to help with repairs, renovations, and energy efficiency upgrades. These grants are available through various programs specifically tailored to assist Native American homeowners in improving their living conditions.

With these grants, you can address critical repair needs, make your home more livable and safe, and enhance its overall value. Whether you reside on tribal land or within a community that is predominantly Native American, there are resources available to support your efforts toward maintaining a comfortable and functional home.

To access these opportunities as a Native American homeowner, it’s important to research the specific grant programs aimed at assisting Indigenous communities. By connecting with relevant tribal authorities or housing agencies, you can gain valuable insights into the eligibility criteria and application process for obtaining government assistance for home improvements.

What can you use a home improvement grant for?

You can use a home improvement grant to repair or upgrade essential systems in your home. This includes fixing roofing, plumbing, electrical wiring, and heating systems. You can also use the grant to make your home more energy-efficient by installing insulation or replacing old windows and doors.

Additionally, the funds can be used for modifications that improve accessibility for individuals with disabilities, such as adding ramps or chair lifts.

Moreover, you can allocate the money towards addressing health and safety hazards within your property like lead-based paint removal or asbestos abatement. Furthermore, making necessary repairs to ensure structural stability and hurricane readiness are also eligible uses of a home improvement grant.

Government home improvement grants: FAQs

Here are some of the most common questions we’re hearing about government home improvement grants.

Is it easy to qualify for a government home improvement grant?

Qualifying for a government home improvement grant is based on various criteria, such as being a low-income homeowner, senior citizen, person with disabilities, veteran, or Native American.

Additionally, specific programs like the Single-family Housing Repair Loan and Home Investments Partnership Program also offer opportunities for qualifying. The application process involves demonstrating eligibility based on these factors to access the financial assistance available.

When considering applying for a government home improvement grant, it’s essential to understand the qualifications that apply to your situation and explore all available options before making a decision.

Whether you’re seeking resources as a low-income homeowner or require support due to age or disability, investigating the specific requirements and understanding your eligibility can be crucial in accessing this beneficial program.

How much money can I get through a government home improvement grant?

Government home improvement grants typically range from a few thousand dollars to around $25,000. The amount you receive depends on your specific needs, income level, and the grant program’s funding availability in your area.

Grants are not meant to cover the entire cost of your project, but they can significantly offset the expenses associated with necessary repairs or improvements.

When considering these grants, it’s essential to research and understand the various programs available in your area and how much financial assistance each one offers for the type of improvements you require.

Whether it’s repairing a roof or making accessibility modifications for someone with disabilities, government home improvement grants can provide valuable support as you enhance your living space.

Do I have to repay a government home improvement grant?

Generally, government home improvement grants do not require repayment as they are designed to assist low-income homeowners, veterans, senior citizens, people with disabilities, and other eligible individuals in making essential repairs or improvements to their homes.

These grants serve as financial assistance to support the safety and livability of your residence without creating an additional financial burden on you. Keep in mind that specific programs may have different guidelines regarding repayment requirements, so it’s important to thoroughly understand the terms of the particular grant you are applying for.

Is a government home improvement grant right for you?

Should you apply for a government home improvement grant? It depends on your unique personal circumstances.

Rather than going through the process on your own, you’re much better off joining forces with a skilled real estate professional who can walk you through the process and explain all the options available to you.

When you’re ready to learn more about government home improvement grants, schedule a free consultation with an expert

More frequently asked questions: Government home improvement grants

1. What is a government home improvement grant?

A government home improvement grant is financial aid provided by the government to help homeowners pay for upgrades and repairs on their homes.

2. Who can get this type of grant?

Homeowners who meet certain qualifications, such as income limits, location requirements, or specific needs like making a home more energy-efficient or accessible for people with disabilities, might be eligible for a government home improvement grant.

3. Are there grants available for anyone who wants to fix up their house?

Not everyone will qualify; eligibility for these grants typically depends on factors like your income level, the type of property you own, and what improvements are necessary.

4. How do I find out if I’m eligible for a government home improvement grant?

To see if you’re qualified for a government home improvement grant, check with local or federal housing agencies that offer these programs and review their criteria which may include specific qualifications related to your situation and the work needed on your house.Rather than trying to figure it out on your own, consult with an expert today.

1st Time Homebuyer Homeowner Real Estate Tips

Condo vs House: Which Home Is Right for You?

Deciding between buying a condo or a house is like choosing the backdrop for your life’s next chapter. 

Would you rather end up the main character in a story of lower initial costs as a condo owner or a story of more privacy and space as a homeowner?

If you’re thinking about buying a condo or a house but can’t make a decision, you’re in the right place. In this guide, we examine the benefits and drawbacks of each, helping you pinpoint the property that fits your lifestyle best.

Let’s dive in and help you find your perfect home.

Key Takeaways

  • Condos typically have a lower purchase price than houses, making them ideal for first-time homebuyers or those with smaller budgets.
  • Houses offer more privacy and space but come with greater responsibilities like maintenance and higher insurance costs.
  • Amenities such as pools and gyms are common in condos whereas houses provide the freedom to personalize your property without HOA restrictions.
  • While condos can be easier to maintain due to HOA involvement, they also come with monthly fees that contribute to overall costs.
  • When considering resale value, houses may appreciate more over time because they include land ownership.

What is the difference between a condo and a house?

When comparing condos and houses, there are several key differences to consider, including cost, insurance, maintenance responsibilities, available amenities, location options, neighbors, HOA rules, and selling considerations.

Each option has its unique advantages and drawbacks that cater to different lifestyles and preferences.


Buying a condo might be the smart move if you’re eyeing affordability. Typically, condos sport lower price tags than their single-family home counterparts, making them an attractive choice for first-time buyers or those with smaller down payments.

Think of it as stepping into homeownership without the deep dive into your savings; condos often serve as a wallet-friendly starting point.

Consider that over time, though, owning a house could bring financial gains that make the initial investment worthwhile. Houses usually carry higher resale values because of the land they sit on. Generally speaking, they tend to appreciate more substantially over time compared to condos.


thinking about a home

Considering insurance for your condo or house is crucial. Owning a condo often means paying less for insurance compared to a standalone house. This is due to the fact that you’re not insuring the exterior or the land; that’s typically covered by the homeowners’ association (HOA).

You’ll just need to protect your unit’s interior and personal possessions.

However, if you opt for a house, expect the insurance cost to be higher since you’re covering everything — the building itself and the land it sits on. But with greater coverage comes greater responsibility; you must also consider additional policies like flood or earthquake insurance depending on your location, which can add up. 

Plus, if you’re unable to come up with a down payment of at least 20%, you may be on the hook for private mortgage insurance, too.

Either way, insuring your home means peace of mind knowing that both structure and contents have protection against unexpected events.


Owning a condo typically means you’ll have fewer maintenance responsibilities than with a house. The homeowners’ association (HOA) often handles exterior upkeep, which can include everything from mowing the lawn to fixing the roof.

This convenience is ideal for those who prefer not to deal with time-consuming yard work or unexpected repairs. However, you do pay a monthly fee for these services, so it’s important to factor this into your budget.

With houses, all maintenance falls squarely on your shoulders. You’re in charge of every aspect of upkeeping your property — from painting walls to replacing broken appliances and managing landscaping tasks.

This gives you more control over how things are done but requires either personal effort or the cost of hiring professionals. Owning a house requires you to be ready to handle anything that comes up, whether it’s a leaking faucet or a full-scale renovation project.


Condos typically come with a range of amenities that cater to various lifestyles — like fitness centers, swimming pools, and community spaces. These facilities can add value to your living experience without the hassle of maintenance.

Also, condos often offer services like landscaping and security, saving you time and effort on these fronts.

On the other hand, single-family houses may not have shared amenities, but they do provide more privacy and personal space. You have the freedom to customize your property according to your preferences without needing approval from a homeowners association (HOA).


When it comes to the location, it’s essential to consider your lifestyle and preferences. Condos are often situated in urban or suburban areas with easy access to public transportation, amenities, and entertainment options. They can be ideal for individuals who seek a vibrant community with convenience at their doorstep. 

On the other hand, houses are commonly found in more secluded or family-oriented neighborhoods, offering larger lots and privacy.

The choice between a condo and a house also depends on proximity to work, schools, and recreational areas that align with your daily routine.

For homeowners who value walkability or prefer an active social scene nearby, condos nestled in bustling city centers may provide the perfect setting. Meanwhile, those seeking a quieter environment or spacious outdoor living spaces might find that houses in suburban or rural locations suit their needs better.


Living in a condo means being close your neighbors. You might share walls, floors, or ceilings with other residents, resulting in more frequent interactions. This setup can lead to a sense of community and potentially less privacy than living in a single-family house.

However, it also provides the opportunity to meet new people and build relationships with those nearby.

Most condos have communal areas such as lobbies, hallways, and elevators where you are likely to run into your neighbors regularly. It’s essential to consider whether this social aspect aligns with your lifestyle before deciding between a condo and a house.

Additionally, factors like noise levels from neighboring units should be considered when choosing the type of property that best suits your preferences.

HOA rules

After discussing the impact of neighbors on your living situation, it’s essential to consider the rules and regulations set by the homeowners’ association (HOA) in a condo or housing community.

HOA rules dictate what homeowners can and cannot do with their properties, as well as outline standards for maintenance and appearance. This includes guidelines for exterior modifications, noise levels, pet ownership, parking regulations, landscaping requirements, and even restrictions on renting out your home.

What’s more, HOA rules also typically involve monthly or annual fees that cover shared expenses such as landscaping, amenities upkeep (pools, gyms), security services (gated communities), and insurance on common areas or structures. Altogether, this provides benefits but adds financial obligations to residents.


real estate agency showing

After considering the HOA rules, it’s essential to understand the selling process for condos and houses. When you decide to sell your condo, you must take into account any restrictions outlined in the community’s bylaws that may affect the sale.

Additionally, factors such as association fees and special assessments can influence a potential buyer’s decision. On the other hand, selling a house involves showcasing its features like outdoor space and privacy.

Marketing a house typically involves highlighting its unique characteristics such as yard size, location, schools, or local amenities.

Selling a condo may require approval from the homeowners’ association (HOA), which can add an extra layer of complexity to the process. Potential buyers will also consider factors such as shared facilities and common areas when deciding whether to make an offer.

Who should buy a condo?

First-time homebuyers with limited down payment can consider buying a condo, as they generally come with a lower price tag compared to single-family homes. If you prefer a low-maintenance lifestyle and community amenities without the hassle of exterior upkeep, then a condo might be suitable for you.

Another reason to opt for a condo is if you desire more independence than being a renter but not as much responsibility as owning a house. Condos are also an ideal option for individuals looking for starter homes that offer greater affordability.

If you want homeownership without the burden of regular maintenance and enjoy living in urban or desirable locations, purchasing a condo could be the right choice.

Who should buy a house?

Prospective homeowners who value privacy, space, and independence should consider buying a house. Houses offer the freedom to personalize and expand living spaces without restrictions imposed by condo associations.

For those seeking outdoor areas like yards or gardens for recreational activities or gardening, a house provides enough land for those pursuits.

Potential homeowners interested in enjoying expansive living spaces and desiring autonomy over their property may prefer purchasing a house over a condo. The opportunity to customize landscaping, have larger living quarters, and build equity in real estate are huge factors that draw individuals toward buying a standalone home instead of a condominium.

What are the benefits of buying a condo vs house?

If you’re considering whether to buy a condo or a house, here are some key benefits of choosing a condominium over a single-family home:

  1. Lower initial cost. Condos typically come with lower price tags than single-family houses, making them an attractive option for first-time buyers or those looking to downsize.
  2. Maintenance-free living. Condo ownership often includes exterior maintenance and landscaping, relieving homeowners of these responsibilities. This can be particularly appealing for busy individuals or retirees.
  3. Amenities access. Many condos offer various amenities such as swimming pools, fitness centers, or community spaces that may not be practical in a single-family home due to space and cost considerations.
  4. Community living. Condos often provide a sense of community and shared responsibility amongst residents, fostering social connections and support networks.
  5. Location advantage. Condos are frequently located in urban areas or near popular attractions, offering convenient access to entertainment, dining, and public transportation.

FAQs: Condo vs house

What are the pros and cons of buying a house?

Buying a house comes with several advantages and disadvantages that you should consider before making a decision. Here’s what you need to know:

  1. Greater privacy and independence. With a house, you have more privacy and independence compared to living in a condo. You don’t have shared walls or common areas, giving you a sense of ownership over your space.
  2. More space. Houses are typically larger than condos, providing more room for your family and belongings. You also have the option to expand or renovate based on your needs.
  3. Higher costs. Owning a house usually involves higher upfront costs, including larger down payments, property taxes, insurance, and maintenance expenses.
  4. Maintenance responsibility. As a homeowner, you’re responsible for all maintenance and repairs for your property, from fixing the roof to landscaping the yard.
  5. Potential for appreciation. Unlike condos, houses include the land they rest on, which may appreciate over time and increase the overall value of your property.
  6. Customization options. With a house, you have the freedom to customize and personalize both the interior and exterior according to your preferences without needing approval from an association.
  7. Location flexibility. Houses are often available in diverse neighborhoods ranging from urban areas to suburban communities offering different lifestyle options.
  8. Longer commute time. Depending on location choice, living in a house can result in longer commutes compared to condos located in urban centers with easier access to public transportation or amenities.
  9. Limited amenities. While some single-family homes come with impressive amenities like swimming pools or spacious yards, they may lack the extensive facilities offered by many condo communities.

What are the pros and cons of buying a condo?

Looking to buy a condo? Here are the pros and cons to consider:


  1. Lower maintenance. Enjoy the convenience of minimal exterior maintenance, as many condo associations handle upkeep.
  2. Amenities access. Condos often feature on-site amenities like gyms, pools, and communal spaces for residents’ use.
  3. Affordability. Generally, condos come with a lower price tag than single-family houses, making them an attractive option for first-time buyers.
  4. Location benefits. Condos are commonly situated in urban or desirable locations, providing convenient access to city life and entertainment.


  1. HOA fees. Homeowners association fees can increase your monthly expenses and may have special assessment fees for unexpected repairs.
  2. Less privacy. Close proximity to neighbors means less privacy compared to owning a standalone house.
  3. Resale value. Historically, condos appreciate in value at a slower rate than single-family homes due to market factors such as oversupply in some areas.
  4. Limited customization. Restrictions on structural changes or major renovations may limit customization options within a condo unit.

Which is cheaper to buy: a condo or a house?

Buying a condo is generally cheaper than buying a house upfront. Condos often come with lower price tags and can be an affordable option, especially for first-time homebuyers with limited down payments.

Condos are usually less expensive because you’re purchasing the unit rather than the land it sits on. Thus, if budget is your primary concern, a condo may offer a more cost-effective entry into homeownership compared to owning a single-family house.

Which is easier to sell: a condo or a house?

Selling a condo is often easier than selling a house. Condos are attractive to first-time buyers, making the market for condos consistently strong. Additionally, their lower maintenance needs and generally affordable price points increase their appeal to potential buyers looking for an easy entry into homeownership.

Buyers who seek convenience and amenities associated with condo living find them more accessible compared to buying a traditional home. Unlike houses that require upkeep of exterior areas like lawns, condominium associations handle these responsibilities, making condos suitable for busy individuals or those seeking a low-maintenance lifestyle.

Grants Guides Homeowner Tips

Eligibility for Government Home Improvement Grants

Are you hoping to fix up your home but worried about the cost? If so, you’re not alone. Many people want to make their houses safer and more comfortable. But in today’s challenging economic climate, money can be tight. Thankfully, there might be some help available in the form of government home improvement grants.

If you live in Maryland, for example, you could apply for a WholeHome Grant if your house needs critical repairs and your income fits within certain limits.

If you’re looking to learn more about how you may be able to use government support for home renovations, you’ve come to the right place. In this post, we examine who typically qualifies for these kinds of grants — like senior citizens and veterans — and highlight programs that could cover some costs associated with making homes energy-efficient or wheelchair-accessible.

Keep reading to learn more about grant eligibility along with other ways to finance your home improvements. Get ready to transform your living space!

Government home improvement grants: An overview

Making your home a better place to live can be exciting. But it can also be expensive. Repairs and improvements like fixing a leaky roof or replacing insulation can stretch your budget thin. Thankfully, help is out there in the form of government home improvement grants — which might just be what you need to finance your next home improvement project.

Good news: If you’re living in Maryland, you could be eligible for assistance through programs aimed at helping homeowners like you — assuming you qualify for these valuable grants.

In the sections that follow, we’ll walk you through eligibility requirements. We’ll also provide clear steps you can follow to apply for funding without getting tangled in red tape. Read on to see how this article shines a light on turning your house into that dream home with some backing from government agencies.

Government home improvement grants: Eligibility requirements

To be eligible for government home improvement grants, individuals must meet certain criteria. These include being a Native American, veteran or service member, rural resident, senior citizen, or person with disabilities.

These eligibility requirements help ensure that those in need of assistance to cover the costs associated with home repairs and improvements can access the necessary support.

Native Americans

To qualify for government home improvement grants, individuals must be members of federally recognized American Indian tribes or Alaskan native communities. These grants are designed to assist Native Americans in making critical repairs and improvements to their homes, ensuring safe and comfortable living conditions.

Additionally, the Native American Housing Improvement Program provides financial aid for home renovations, accessibility modifications, and energy-efficient upgrades to eligible individuals within these communities.

This initiative aims to support housing repair and improvement projects, addressing the specific needs of Native American homeowners.

The Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development offers resources for loan referrals and information on home improvement programs available to Native Americans seeking assistance with their housing repair needs.

Veterans and service members

Veterans and service members may be eligible for government home improvement grants through agencies such as the Department of Veterans Affairs. Eligibility criteria often include requirements regarding length of service, discharge status, and specific disabilities related to military service.

Additionally, veterans may have access to specialized resources and support offered by veteran-focused organizations within their local communities.

Rural residents

Rural residents may qualify for government home improvement grants if they meet specific eligibility criteria. These programs aim to assist individuals living in rural areas who may face challenges in accessing adequate housing repair and improvement resources.

Factors such as household income, age, and residence in designated rural regions are taken into consideration when determining eligibility for these grants.

Citizens and permanent residents living in Maryland can access housing grants provided by the state government to support their home renovation needs. For Native Americans and veterans residing in rural areas, there are assistance programs available to help with property maintenance and accessibility modifications.


Senior citizens — those aged 62 or older — may qualify for government home improvement grants to assist with critical repair needs. Their eligibility is determined by factors such as household debt to income ratio.

Seniors can access resources for loan referrals and information about home improvement programs through the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development. These grant and loan programs aim to help seniors maintain safe and comfortable living environments, ensuring that they have the support needed to make necessary home repairs in a timely manner.

The availability of various government-funded assistance programs underscores the commitment to helping seniors age in place safely, ensuring that their homes remain functional throughout their retirement years.

Persons with disabilities

Persons with disabilities can qualify for government home improvement grants to make necessary modifications and improvements to their homes. Eligibility criteria may vary, but individuals with disabilities — including physical or mental impairments — often qualify for assistance programs.

Additionally, applicants must meet specific income requirements and eligibility guidelines set by the relevant housing agencies. If you’re making six figures or more, chances are you can probably afford home improvement projects out of pocket. 

Furthermore, government home improvement grants can help cover the costs of accessibility modifications — such as ramps or widened doorways to improve mobility within the home.

If you have a disability, you should explore these resources to find out whether you can improve your living conditions and maintain independence — all without breaking the bank.

Types of government home improvement grants

From the Home Investment Partnerships Program and Section 504 Home Repair Program to the Native American Housing Improvement Program and more, there’s no shortage of potential grants available to Maryland residents.

Home Investment Partnerships Program

The Home Investment Partnerships Program provides funding to state and local governments to create affordable housing opportunities for low-income households. It enables communities to address a range of affordable housing needs, including home repair, rehabilitation, and new home construction.

This program aims to expand the supply of decent, safe, sanitary, and affordable housing.

One option within the Home Investment Partnerships Program is the Single Family Housing Repair Loans & Grants program that offers loans and grants to very-low-income homeowners for repairing their homes in eligible rural areas.

The program assists elderly and disabled individuals who cannot afford necessary repairs on their own homes. To further support this initiative, it’s important for homeowners who meet the requirements not to overlook this valuable resource as they plan their home improvement projects.

Section 504 Home Repair Program

The Section 504 Home Repair Program allows eligible homeowners to access loans and grants for repairing, improving, or modernizing their homes. This program is specifically designed for low-income individuals with disabilities.

The objective is to make homes more accessible and safer by providing financial assistance for necessary repairs, modifications, or improvements. Through this program, qualifying individuals can receive funds to address issues such as structural problems, electrical hazards, plumbing deficiencies, and accessibility modifications.

Additionally, the Section 504 Home Repair Program offers subsidies that cover the cost of labor and materials needed for home improvements. Applicants must meet specific income requirements to qualify for this assistance program.

Native American Housing Improvement Program

Native American Housing Improvement Program provides valuable resources for eligible members of federally recognized tribes and Alaska natives. By meeting specific criteria — such as owning and living in a property located on trust or restricted lands — individuals can access grants to support crucial repairs, energy efficiency upgrades, and housing rehabilitation.

In addition to these grants, the program also offers loans with low interest rates for more extensive home improvement projects. The assistance provided through this program aims to improve the safety and quality of housing for Native American communities.

Area Agency on Aging

The Area Agency on Aging provides valuable resources and support for seniors seeking home repair assistance. Those 62 or older may be eligible for grants to help with critical repairs or accessibility modifications in their homes.

These grants are designed to improve safety and quality of life for older adults, offering financial aid for home improvements that can make a significant difference in their daily lives.

The agency also offers information on other programs and financing options available to seniors, helping them navigate the process of applying for government home improvement grants.

Department of Veterans Affairs grants

Veterans and service members may be eligible for home improvement grants through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). These grants aim to help veterans with disabilities or those requiring accessibility modifications.

Additionally, the VA offers the Specially Adapted Housing Grant (SAH) and the Special Housing Adaptation Grant (SHA) to assist qualifying veterans in making necessary alterations to their homes.

Requirements for eligibility include specific disability criteria, service-related injuries, and homeownership status.

Other financing options for home improvement

Don’t qualify for these grants? Bummer. But that doesn’t mean you’re entirely out of luck.

Consider exploring additional financing options for home improvement such as cash-out refinance, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and weatherization assistance programs to find the best fit for your specific needs.

These options can provide alternative sources of funding for your home improvement projects.

Cash-out refinance

Homeowners looking to fund home improvement projects can consider a cash-out refinance. By refinancing their mortgage for more than the current outstanding balance, homeowners can access the difference in cash.

This option allows them to use their home equity to finance repairs and upgrades, offering flexibility in managing project costs without taking out an additional loan. Eligible Maryland homeowners seeking financial assistance for home improvements should explore this financing avenue as part of their overall strategy.

This option is particularly beneficial for those who have built up significant equity in their homes and want to leverage that equity to undertake necessary repairs or renovations.

Home equity line of credit

After considering a cash-out refinance, homeowners may also explore another financing option known as a home equity line of credit (HELOC). Very simply, HELOCs allow eligible homeowners to access a revolving line of credit using the equity in their homes.

This type of financing is often used for home improvement projects and repairs, offering flexibility with interest payments and withdrawal options. 

Weatherization Assistance Programs

Weatherization Assistance Programs offer government support for homeowners to improve energy efficiency and weatherproof their homes. These programs aim to reduce energy costs by providing eligible families with services such as insulation, weather stripping, and minor home repairs.

Additionally, these initiatives enable low-income households to conserve energy and minimize utility expenses while maintaining a comfortable living environment. Eligible individuals may access this assistance through the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development or similar state-based housing agencies.

Residents who meet certain income requirements can benefit from weatherization assistance programs offered by local governments. As a result, they can reduce their energy bills and contribute to environmental sustainability efforts in their communities.

How to apply for a government home improvement grant

To apply for a government home improvement grant, you need to make sure you meet the eligibility requirements. If you are a Native American, veteran, rural resident, senior citizen, or person with disabilities, you may qualify for assistance programs.

Additionally, you also need to ensure that your household income and age align with the specific criteria set by the program. Once you confirm your eligibility, reach out to your local state government or housing department to obtain information on available grants and loan programs.

The Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development offers resources for loan referrals and details about home improvement programs. Consider reaching out to them as you explore your options.

Government home improvement grants: FAQs

1. Who is eligible for government home improvement grants in Maryland?

Eligibility criteria may vary, but generally, low-income households, seniors, and individuals with specific needs qualify. Factors such as income levels, property ownership, and the nature of improvements required can influence eligibility. Consult local government resources for precise details.

2. What types of home improvements are covered by government grants in Maryland?

Government home improvement grants in Maryland often cover essential repairs, energy efficiency upgrades, and accessibility modifications. Common improvements include roof repairs, HVAC upgrades, weatherization, and adaptations for persons with disabilities. Specific grant programs may have distinct focus areas. As such, applicants should review available programs carefully.

3. How can Maryland residents apply for government home improvement grants?

The application process typically involves contacting relevant government agencies or non-profit organizations overseeing the grant programs. Documentation such as proof of income, property ownership, and a detailed project proposal may be required. Check with the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development or local housing authorities for application procedures and deadlines.

Are government home improvement grants right for you?

Government home improvement grants are available for various groups, including Native Americans, veterans, seniors, rural residents, and persons with disabilities. These programs aim to assist homeowners in maintaining and improving their properties.

Eligibility criteria consider factors such as age, income level, property location, and tribal affiliation. Applying for these grants can provide valuable financial support for essential home repairs and accessibility modifications.

Assuming you meet the criteria and qualify, you should explore this kind of financial assistance. You never know when you might be able to secure free money to make your house a place you like even more.

FHA Guides Homeowner Tips

Complete Guide to FHA Loan Refinancing Requirements

Buying a house is one of the most expensive purchases most people ever make. While becoming a homeowner is part of the American dream, not everyone is flush with cash and can qualify for a traditional mortgage. In fact, according to recent data, 9.1% of mortgage applicants were denied in 2022. 

For folks who want to buy a house but can’t get approved for conventional financing, FHA loans can be a lifesaver. While they may be more expensive than conventional loans in the long run, they can help first-time homebuyers close on their first property. Plus, you can always refinance FHA loans when the opportunity presents itself and keep your costs in check.

If you’re looking to learn more about FHA loans — and refinancing an FHA loan in particular — you’ve come to the right place. Keep reading to learn more about the benefits of FHA loans, the benefits of refinancing, and the FHA loan refinancing requirements you’ll have to meet to do it.

What is an FHA loan?

An FHA loan is a government-backed mortgage guaranteed by the Federal Housing Authority (FHA), an agency that sits under the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. These financial vehicles are designed to help individuals with modest financial resources and suboptimal credit scores. 

Simply put, FHA loans provide a more accessible path to homeownership to folks who need it. 

Benefits of FHA loans

  • They require a lower down payment. FHA loans offer a lower down payment requirement. Borrowers may qualify for a loan while putting as little as 3.5% down. This makes homeownership easier to achieve for first-time homebuyers who may have limited funds.
  • More lenient credit score criteria. FHA loans are known for being more forgiving when it comes to credit scores. Borrowers with credit challenges or less than optimal credit scores may still qualify for FHA loans, giving people who wouldn’t qualify for conventional mortgages a shot at homeownership. 
  • Competitive interest rates. Since FHA loans are backed by the government, lenders are more likely to offer favorable interest rates to borrowers who otherwise wouldn’t qualify for a traditional mortgage.
  • Flexible debt-to-income ratios. FHA loans typically have more flexible debt-to-income (DTI) ratio requirements. This allows borrowers to allocate a higher percentage of their income toward housing costs, accommodating those with slightly higher debt levels. This flexibility can be advantageous for borrowers with other financial obligations.
  • Options for home improvement. Borrowers can take advantage of FHA 230(k) loans, which provide the additional benefit of allowing borrowers to finance the cost of home improvements or repairs into their mortgage. This feature is particularly useful for buyers looking to invest in a property that requires renovations since it combines the home purchase and improvement costs into a single loan.

Challenges of FHA loans

  • Higher upfront costs. While FHA loans have a lower down payment requirement, borrowers may be on the hook for higher upfront costs. For example, FHA loan recipients often have to pay an upfront mortgage insurance premium (UFMIP). While this is often rolled into the loan amount, it can still represent a significant expense for buyers.
  • Borrowers have to pay mortgage insurance premiums. Speaking of mortgage insurance premiums: Not only do borrowers have to pay UFMIP at closing, they also need to pay a premium each year. Unfortunately, this can increase the cost of homeownership. Unlike PMI on conventional loans, FHA MIP remains in effect for the entire loan term.
  • There are strict loan limits. You might not be able to get your dream house using an FHA loan. These instruments have limits on the amount of money that can be borrowed, which varies by location. In high-cost areas, the loan limits may not be enough to cover the cost of homes, limiting options for buyers in more expensive markets.
  • Property eligibility requirements. FHA loans have specific property eligibility criteria. The property must meet certain standards, and any issues identified during the appraisal process may need to be addressed before loan approval. This can limit the choice of homes for potential buyers.
  • Complex appraisal process. About that appraisal process: FHA loans involve a more detailed appraisal process compared to conventional loans. The appraiser must assess the property’s condition and safety, potentially leading to additional repair requirements. This can add complexity and time to the homebuying process.

Understanding FHA loan refinancing

Refinancing experience

FHA loan refinancing is a strategic financial move that involves replacing an existing FHA mortgage with a new one, often to secure more favorable terms or tap into the equity built in the home. This process is designed to provide homeowners with improved financial flexibility and stability, allowing them to adapt their mortgage to changing circumstances (e.g., when interest rates decrease or when the owner needs to take out equity from the house).

There are two main reasons why a homeowner might decide to refinance their FHA loan:

  • To secure a lower interest rate. By refinancing your FHA loan, you may be able to lower your interest rate and reduce your monthly mortgage payment. Lower rates can contribute to significant long-term savings, making homeownership more affordable and freeing up funds for other financial goals. Additionally, refinancing can be instrumental in transitioning from an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) to a fixed-rate mortgage, providing more stability in monthly payments while protecting against future interest rate fluctuations.
  • To leverage their home equity. FHA loan refinancing offers the option of cash-out refinancing, enabling homeowners to leverage the equity they’ve built up in their property. This additional capital can be used for various purposes, like home improvements, debt consolidation, or other significant financial endeavors. The ability to access home equity through refinancing serves as a valuable tool homeowners can use to improve their financial situation without resorting to alternative financing methods.

Worried that the refinancing process will eat up a ton of your time? Don’t be. The FHA offers streamline refinancing, which simplifies the refinancing process by reducing documentation requirements, making it a more efficient option for eligible homeowners. 

FHA loan refinancing requirements

FHA loan refinancing can be the perfect opportunity to improve your financial situation. That said, not everyone might qualify for this financial move. If you’re thinking about refinancing an FHA loan, you’ll need to meet the following requirements.

1. Eligibility requirements

To be eligible for FHA loan refinancing, you need to:

  • Have an existing FHA loan. Only individuals with an existing FHA loan can qualify for FHA loan refinancing. Conventional loans or mortgages from other government programs are not eligible.
  • Have made timely payments. A history of on-time mortgage payments is required to refinance. Late payments or defaults on the existing FHA loan can adversely impact eligibility.
  • Live in the property. The property attached to the loan you’re trying to refinance must be your primary residence.

2. Credit score requirements

Credit score meter

While FHA loans are known for accommodating lower credit scores, specific requirements for refinancing may vary among lenders. Generally speaking, a credit score of 580 or higher is advisable for more favorable terms. On top of this, you should also be able to demonstrate responsible credit behavior.

3. Optimal loan-to-value (LTV) ratio

The LTV ratio represents the loan amount relative to the appraised value of the property. FHA refinancing may have LTV limits, typically requiring a maximum of 97.75% LTV for a rate-and-term refinance and an 85% LTV for a cash-out refinance. In certain circumstances, an appraisal may be required to determine the property’s current value and ensure it meets FHA standards.

4. Debt-to-income (DTI) ratio

Lenders assess your ability to manage debt using the DTI ratio. FHA refinancing may have specific DTI limits to ensure that you’re able to comfortably afford the new loan. If you’re able to demonstrate stable income, you should have a much easier time qualifying for a refinance.

5. Choosing the type of refinance

Assuming you’re approved for a refinance, you’ll also have to decide which type of FHA loan refinancing is best for your current situation:

  • A rate-and-term refinance is ideal for those looking to lower interest rates or change the loan term without tapping into their home equity.
  • A cash-out refinance is best for those who are looking to consolidate their debt or pay for home improvement projects and need a little extra cash.

6. Gathering proper documentation

As you begin applying for a refinance, you will need to gather several documents and provide them to your lender:

  • Proof of income, which includes pay stubs, W2 forms, or tax returns to verify stable income.
  • Credit report, which lenders may request to see how your creditworthiness has changed over time.
  • Property information, including its current value and condition.

FHA loan refinancing is complicated. Don’t do it on your own!

Let’s face it: The FHA loan refinancing process is long and complicated. But the good news is that you don’t have to go through that process entirely on your own.

By joining forces with an FHA loan expert, you’ll gain access to a trusted partner who will guide you through the process, let you know your options, and help you pick a solution that works best for your unique situation.

With that right approach, you’ll be able to lower your monthly payments, get access to home equity through cash-out refinancing, or get a more predictable monthly payment by switching to a fixed-rate mortgage — whichever benefit applies to your situation.

When you’re ready to begin the FHA loan refinancing process, reach out to an expert today.

1st Time Homebuyer Guides Homeowner Real Estate Tips

Evaluating School Districts before Moving: Do Your Homework

A Comprehensive Guide to Evaluating & Comparing School Districts

Clothing store jingles, parents and children stocking up on classroom supplies, traffic behind the yellow bus. These telltale signs can only mean one thing: back-to-school season is upon us once again. 

Moving to a new location can be an exciting yet daunting task — especially when you have children and their education to consider.

Surprisingly, many first-time homebuyers don’t realize that the quality of a school district and the efficiency with which it utilizes its resources affects homeowners of all ages and situations, regardless of their family composition.

As a new school year approaches, there’s no better time for first-time homebuyers to explore resources that can help evaluate and compare school districts.

In this post, we examine why first-time homebuyers should consider school district quality before making a home-buying decision, share resources available to aid in decision-making, and dive further into the factors to keep in mind as you narrow down options on the journey to homeownership.

Why school district quality matters for first-time homebuyers

Neighborhood school bus on its route

When school districts boast a superior reputation, it is no surprise they draw in families who seek a quality education for their children. Prudent first-time homebuyers also know that a school district with a long track of excellence will lead to an increase in their home value over time. 

Parents of school age children are typically in the middle of their productive working years and towards the beginning of paying off their mortgages, which increases the local tax revenue appropriated to school districts. With more resources available to a school district, it can hire better teachers and open more supplemental programs, thus creating a cycle of increasing desirability, competition, and in turn, property values. 

The most important factor to consider

In many ways, consideration of the local school district is one of the most important factors to consider when making what is often the largest one-time financial investment a person or family makes, the purchase of a home. Long after you buy a home and your children have grown up, a smart homeowner will monitor the health of their local school district because they know how critical it is to the quality of the surrounding neighborhood and their home’s value. 

It is important to balance factors discussed in this post with the tax rate of your potential home or neighborhood. While you can pay mortgage payments down over time and restructure your loans, local school district taxes are likely to rise over time. Research the annual history of school tax rate in the school district to get a sense of how much you can expect it to change each year. 

Financial implications aside, the quality of the school district plays a pivotal role in shaping children’s academic journey and overall development. This comprehensive guide aims to provide you with insights and strategies to effectively evaluate and compare school districts while making an informed decision for you or your family’s future.

The 3 R’s: School Rankings, Ratings, and Resources

When considering prospective school districts, begin your evaluation by researching local school rankings and ratings through publicly available resources. Websites like use multiple factors and weightings to rank and rate schools such as SAT/ACT test scores, parent surveys, teacher salary, expenses per student, cultural diversity statistics, and availability of extracurricular clubs or sports. 

Other resources such as the U.S. News & National Report use similar factors, but may weigh the factors differently. 

For example, a district measures college readiness by the proportion of a school’s 12th graders who earn Advanced Placement credits or pass International Baccalaureate Exams. This score represents 30% of the overall rating for U.S. News & National Report, whereas uses several million parent, student, and teacher surveys to aggregate data on various factors and then assigns varying weights to the factors. is an example of a non-profit website that uses a similar methodology to, but values student progress as their top factor, and therefore assigns it the highest weight of all the contributing factors. The popular real estate website Zillow happens to pull its school rankings from 

All of these resources can provide a first-time homebuyer with a starting point in their quest for a school district. But you may need to do a little more homework to complete a comprehensive search. 

By understanding the factors that go into school ratings and rankings, first-time homebuyers can decide for themselves the most valuable features of a school district, depending on their individual scenarios. 

Next, we outline the most commonly used factors for rating school districts in more detail by explaining how to measure them, why they are important, and limitations for first-time homebuyers to consider.

Factors to consider when evaluating a school district

Ratings and rankings of school districts usually include several, if not all, of the factors below. However, no single media resource is likely to lead to the perfect match for a first-time homebuyer’s situation. To complete a comprehensive search, homebuyers should consider all of these factors and decide what is most important depending on their unique situation. 

1. Student performance

Happy student scores an A on latest exam

Far and away the number one factor used to rate schools is some measure of student performance, which can also take into account student progress and/or achievement, depending on the methodology. While folks often criticize standardized tests for their flaws, they are the most statistically sound measure available to compare student performance. 

Nationwide standardized tests such as the SATs and ACTs provide a measure of student achievement that administrators can use to compare performance within schools, across districts/regions, and even between states. 

Student performance is also measured using state testing data, often required for state diplomas. In many states, students demonstrate their mastery of curriculum through their performance on state tests, and teachers are graded on the performance of their students.

Another widely considered measure of student performance is local graduation rates. These statistics are accessible through the U.S. Department of Education’s website, as well as individual state education department websites. 

Although student performance is in some ways a catch-all for all other factors that lead to the outcomes on these tests, several other factors must be considered when evaluating and comparing school districts.

2. College and career readiness

When evaluating how a school district prepares students for life after school, the term college readiness often applies.

College readiness is typically measured by analyzing the number of college level/advanced placement courses available to students, participation rates within these courses, and outcomes on advanced placement tests. Local districts often highlight where their graduates will be attending college in May or June as high school seniors prepare to graduate.

A related factor to consider is career readiness. Recent initiatives, such as the Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century Act of 2018 (Perkins V) have focused on closing the gap between what is learned in the academic classroom and how that is applied to solving real-word problems. 

Career and Technical Education (CTE) Programs provide high school students with vocational training in high-demand fields such as construction, automotive technology, information technology, healthcare, and cybersecurity. Oftentimes, students can leave high school with certifications and step right into their desired field. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) curriculums can prepare students from a young age to focus on problem-solving. 

Beyond career readiness programs such as CTE, districts may offer apprenticeship programs, work-based learning opportunities, and other partnerships with local businesses. Many districts highlight young alumni on their school websites and profile the work they are doing years after graduation.

3. Teacher and leadership quality 

Teacher quality is a complex and multifaceted concept that can be both controversial and challenging to measure accurately. You can use various methods and criteria to assess teacher quality, often taking into consideration both quantitative and qualitative factors. With this in mind, let’s take a look at some common ways to measure teacher quality.

One of the most direct ways to measure teacher quality is through classroom observations. Experienced mentors or administrators observe teachers in action to assess their instructional practices, classroom management, engagement with students, and ability to create an effective learning environment. 

Evaluating school districts before moving: Patient teacher helping his students in the classroom setting

A potential limitation of this method, however, is its inherent subjectiveness despite the efforts of educational researchers to employ rubrics and other measurement tools. 

Student performance

A more objective measure that is considered when measuring teacher quality, as previously discussed from a different perspective, is student performance on standardized tests and other assessments. Value-added models attempt to measure a teacher’s impact on student learning by comparing their students’ actual performance to expected performance based on various factors.

Qualifications such as degrees, certifications, and years of experience are sometimes used or factored into indicators of teacher quality. While they can be relevant and say something about the consistency of a school, they don’t always provide a complete picture of a teacher’s effectiveness in the classroom.

Professional development

The extent to which teachers engage in ongoing professional development and stay current with educational research and practices is often considered a sign of teacher quality. Most states and districts mandate some level of professional development engagement for teachers, typically with increased intensity in the beginning stages of a teachers’ career. Professional development plans are available on district websites and are often incorporated into publicly available district policies and teacher contracts. 

Surveys can be used to measure teacher quality, although they have the potential to run into the problem of subjectivity and bias depending on how questions are structured and who is completing the surveys. Surveys from students attempt to measure a teacher’s ability to engage, motivate, and support students. Peer surveys or assessments aim to provide insights into a teacher’s collaboration, teamwork, and contributions to the school community. Additionally, self-assessments can offer teachers the opportunity to reflect on their own practices and areas for improvement but are often not readily available to potential home-buyers.

The parents’ views

The views of parents, guardians, and other stakeholders within the school community can also contribute to the assessment of teacher quality. School board meetings are open to the public and first-time homebuyers can learn a lot about a school district’s culture by attending and participating in these meetings.

Tangential to teacher quality is the quality of strong building and district leadership. Some districts require prospective school administrators to hold doctorate degrees or advanced certifications and training. A potential homebuyer may want to inquire and explore the turnover rate for a district’s leadership team and compare it to other local districts. 

It’s important to note that no single measurement method can fully capture teacher or leadership quality. Often, graders use a combination of these methods to provide a more comprehensive assessment. Moreover, the context in which teachers work, the student population they serve, and the goals of the educational institution all play a role in determining how to evaluate teacher quality.

4. Facilities and resources

School taxes go largely towards a school’s budget and community members have the right to expect that the district uses funding to maintain facilities and keep up with technology within schools. Adequate and well-maintained facilities create a safe and conducive learning environment for students. This is why facilities and resources are part of school district ratings.

First-time homebuyers should explore a district’s facilities through its website and consider asking for a tour to personally assess the cleanliness and comfort within a school building by looking for signs of well-lit and ventilated learning spaces and asking about cleaning and hygiene practices.  

Well-equipped science labs, art studios, music rooms, and other specialized spaces can enhance hands-on learning experiences in various subjects for students. Other than noting capital expenditures for these rooms in budgets, they can be difficult for a homebuyer to assess without seeing in person. 

When exploring the facilities, it is also important to keep technology in mind, as it is an inseparable component of modern education.  Inquire about technology initiatives at potential schools and the level of access that students have to equipment beyond traditional textbooks and class materials.

Schools with appropriate facilities and resources are better able to provide inclusive education for students with special needs. Accessible facilities and tools can promote a more inclusive learning environment. Plus, the law mandates them via the Americans with Disabilities Act. Students with special needs as well as other students may benefit from open counseling spaces or therapist rooms that contain sensory equipment and other supplemental learning resources to help students with disabilities access the curriculum. 

Class size

Class size and student-to-teacher ratios are directly related to physical facilities and the resources available to a district. Research suggests that smaller class size leads to positive short-term and long-term student outcomes because students receive additional individualized attention from their teachers. This can be especially important for students with special needs.

When considering facilities and resources, it is important to evaluate the long-term prospects of the school district. Research the district’s history of fiscal health and any plans for future capital improvements. A forward-thinking district is more likely to adapt to changing educational needs.

Overall, quality facilities and resources are essential for creating an environment where both students and teachers can thrive. Adequate funding, strategic planning, and community involvement are key factors to consider when evaluating whether schools have the resources they need to provide a high-quality education.

4. Equity and Cultural Diversity Factors 

Schools that prioritize equity provide targeted support to students who may face challenges due to socioeconomic status, language barriers, or disabilities, leading to improved academic outcomes. Inclusion can benefit all students by fostering empathy, communication, acceptance and a sense of community across diverse backgrounds. This improves the school climate for all stakeholders. 

Cultural diversity can enrich the learning environment by exposing students to different perspectives, cultures, and ways of thinking. This can lead to increased critical thinking skills and a broader worldview. When agencies rate and rank districts, they measure these factors through a combination of census data and the achievement levels of students from different groups. 

Measuring equity requires comprehensive data collection, analysis, and a commitment to making necessary changes to ensure that all students have equal access to a high-quality education. It’s important to use multiple measures and involve culturally diverse stakeholders of students, parents, teachers, and community members in the assessment process.

First-time homebuyers can explore equity initiatives in more depth by carefully analyzing a district’s curriculum and looking for engagement among diverse stakeholders to build trust in the community. When looking at historical data, a potential homebuyer may want to analyze subgroup achievement scores and would ideally see the gap closing. Similarly, one may want to analyze the achievement gap between subgroups when comparing between districts.

You can’t ignore diversity, equity, and inclusion

Equity and cultural diversity can have a profound impact on school districts and play into all of the factors previously discussed. For this reason, first-time homebuyers cannot ignore these crucial factors that folks commonly consider as part of overall school district ratings.

Administrators measure equity in schools through a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods that assess the distribution of resources, opportunities, and outcomes among various student groups. It involves evaluating whether all students, regardless of their background, have access to the same quality of education and opportunities for success.

When measuring equity through the lens of student performance and college/career readiness, school district raters examine standardized test scores, graduation rates, participation in advanced courses, and college enrollment across different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic subgroups to measure for disparities. 

States require districts to measure and report if students with disabilities and students who participate in gifted or talented programs are over or under-represented by subgroups. There are also mandated requirements for students who need additional support to learn and acquire the English language. 

Measuring equity and diversity

School leaders need to take equity and diversity into account on several fronts. Disciplinary actions such as suspensions are analyzed across different subgroups for disparities. Leaders work with teachers to gather and assess the level to which students from diverse backgrounds feel safe, respected, and included. School leaders who are charged with developing curriculum examine the material to ensure it reflects the experiences of different subgroups. 

School ratings also measure the level of diversity amongst teaching staff and school leadership and analyze hiring processes to check for inequities. 

As equity relates facilities and resources, raters analyze how funding, technology, and materials are distributed across schools and classrooms, because students in under-resourced schools may not have the same opportunities as those in more well-funded schools. A first-time homebuyer may want to explore if a district has a family resource center that conducts outreach to parents and community members of different backgrounds. 

5. Other factors to consider

While student performance, college/career readiness, teacher/leadership quality, facilities/resources, and measures of equity/diversity tend to make up the bulk of school district ratings and rankings, there are several other, sometimes more difficult to measure, factors first-time homebuyers should consider. 

Parent and community involvement contributes to community success, and in turn, a school district’s reputation. First-time homebuyers may want to analyze voter turnout for school board meetings and budget votes and compare with other districts. Another indicator for parent and community involvement could be a robust PTA membership. 

Safety is a top priority in modern American schools due to tragic incidents of violence that have played out over the past quarter-century. Analysis of safety and security data can give a first-time homebuyer an idea of a school-district’s safety. Indicators to look for are the number of security guards per school, whether schools partner with local police departments and utilize school resource officers, and whether the school has a safety plan in the event of an emergency. Raters can also check for safety violations and citations issued by local and state authorities, as school districts are subject to state audits. Another indicator related to safety is the presence of an anti-bullying program to reduce violence with a preventative approach. 

Transportation and after-school programs

A practical aspect to consider for first-time homebuyers who will have children going through the school district is whether the district provides transportation or offers after-school programs and how this would affect a homeowner’s own work availability and/or daycare needs. Daycare can have a significant effect on a homeowner’s budget. 

Evaluating school districts before moving: Children playing on the floor at daycare facility

If a first-time homebuyer has a child who receives special education services, it will be important to contact the district’s special education director or special education chairperson to discuss potential options to ensure the district can meet the student’s needs in the least restrictive environment possible. School districts are generally required to match a student’s special education plan from their previous school district and are also required to identify students with disabilities through the child-find process. Special education programs can vary widely from district to district so this may be an important consideration depending on individual needs. 

Finally, a first-time home buyer may want to consider simply reaching out to current parents and community members within prospective school districts to gain anecdotal insights into their experiences. Their perspectives can offer valuable information that might not be readily available through publicly available resources.

Buying a home for the first time? Don’t forget to evaluate local school districts

Choosing the right school district is a multifaceted decision that requires thorough research and evaluation. By considering the factors discussed in this article, you can make an informed choice that aligns with your family’s educational goals and values. .

While first-time homebuyers should carefully consider the quality of local schools before buying a house, that’s just one factor in the decision-making process. To learn more about other things to keep in mind as you narrow down your options, read this: 10 Important Considerations for Buying a House.

Tom Colgan is a certified School Psychologist and Special Education Chairperson working and living in the South Orangetown Central School District in Blauvelt, NY. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology from the University of Vermont, a Masters Degree and Advanced Certificate in School Psychology from the State Univeristy of New York at Buffalo, and Certifications in School Building Leadership and School District Leadership from the State University of New York at New Paltz. He is father of three young children, educational researcher, homeowner, and involved community member. 

Homeowner Real Estate

For Sale By Owner: Everything You Need to Know

In most real estate transactions, homebuyers and sellers hire real estate agents to represent them. In many cases, buyers and sellers never interact with each other; the agents work as intermediaries and do all the negotiation.

Every now and again, however, you may run into the acronym FSBO on your house hunt. This means “for sale by owner” — a seemingly minor detail that impacts the sale significantly. 

If you’re wondering what FSBO is, you’ve come to the right. This article offers a complete overview of FSBO, including: 

  • What is FSBO in real estate?
  • MLS listing vs. FSBO
  • Why homeowners sometimes choose FSBO
  • Considerations to make during an FSBO transaction
  • How home buyers can potentially benefit from FSBO deals
  • The challenges of FSBO
  • Frequently asked questions about FSBO

What is FSBO in real estate?

FSBO refers to a method of selling real estate where the owner handles the entire selling process end-to-end without using a real estate broker. Instead, they’re responsible for all of the tasks associated with selling a house, including marketing the property, taking photos, making yard signs, listing it, negotiating with buyers, and closing the deal.

All kinds of properties — both single-family and multi-family homes, including standalone houses, condos, apartments, and townhouses — can be sold directly by the owner. However, the vast majority of real estate deals are not made this way. 

In fact, the latest data from the National Association of Retailers (NAR) has FSBOs accounting for just 10% of home sales, with the typical FSBO home selling for $225,000 versus $330,000 with an agent.

MLS listing vs. FSBO

When a homeowner decides to sell their property with the help of a broker or real estate agent, the real estate company typically lists the property in a multiple listing service (MLS) database. There are numerous MLS databases throughout different areas and regions, and each is a network of new listings designed to help real estate professionals. 

When a property goes into an MLS database, the listing typically includes details like square feet (sqft), location, features, and asking price. This allows other real estate agents to access and share information with their clients, resulting in greater market exposure. 

In an FSBO transaction, the property owner assumes the full responsibility of marketing and selling the property to potential buyers. Since they don’t use a real estate agent, FSBO properties typically do not appear in an MLS. 

Instead, property owners usually explore alternative means of advertising FSBO properties like social media, classified ads, open houses, and online platforms like Zillow, Redfin, or Trulia. That said, some MLS systems do offer limited services to FSBO sellers in exchange for a listing fee. 

Why homeowners sometimes choose FSBO 

Any time you explore a new home that’s for sale, you should always think about why the person is selling their house and what their selling strategy might be. This is especially important with an FSBO property, which deviates from the traditional selling process.

With that in mind, let’s examine some common reasons a homeowner may choose to market their property FSBO instead of using an agent.

Save money

One of the top reasons why homeowners choose FSBO is to save money. In most transactions, real estate brokers ask for 5% to 6% of the sale price, with half going to the listing agent and the other half going to the agent representing the buyer. By selling the property themselves, homeowners can avoid paying a real estate commission and pocket the savings instead.

If a person opts to sell their property FSBO to pinch pennies, it may indicate they are a tough negotiator and looking for the best possible deal. In such cases, you should go in ready for a potential price battle and round up as much comp data as you can. 

Maintain control over the sales process

Working with a selling agent requires giving up significant control over the selling process. Naturally, not all sellers are comfortable with this.

By selling a property FSBO, the homeowner can set the listing price, retain control over the property’s appearance, and negotiate directly with buyers — all without relying on an agent. 

Control the market 

Sometimes homeowners want to avoid exposing their property to the general market and target their advertising to a specific group of buyers. FSBO helps reach potential buyers without listing the property on an MLS and attracting the attention of every real estate agent under the sun.

Homes for sale by owner: Considerations to make

In a traditional real estate transaction, buyers often leave the heavy lifting to their real estate agents. But when buying a property for sale by the owner, the process requires more diligence. In addition to securing a mortgage, here are a few other factors you need to keep in mind when you’re considering buying a FSBO property.


First things first: Research the market and ensure the price is fair and in line with similar properties in the area. Here, it helps to get an appraisal or consult with a real estate agent if possible. According to the NAR, 16% of FSBO sellers struggle with getting the price right. 

Property inspections

Always insist on a comprehensive home inspection before agreeing to any purchase. This holds true regardless of whether you are completing an FSBO or traditional sale. Asking for an assessment can help reveal potential issues that a seller may be trying to hide — like malfunctioning wells, septic systems that are past their useful lives, or structural damage.


Sellers often try to avoid dealing with real estate agents altogether when putting their houses on the market as FSBO. As such, you may have to get in the trenches and negotiate directly with the seller about things like price, contingencies, and repairs. Before diving in, brush up on your real estate negotiation tactics.

Escrow and closing

In an FSBO transaction, the roles of escrow and closing are similar to a traditional sale. However, there are some key differences to be aware of. 

In an FSBO sale, the seller and buyer must decide how to handle the escrow process. The two parties can use a third-party escrow company or attorney to facilitate this unless they want to handle it themselves.

What’s more, during closing the seller is responsible for coordinating all closing details — like scheduling the closing date, preparing all of the necessary documents, receiving signatures, and addressing last-minute concerns. It’s also necessary to meet in person and finalize the sale. 


All real estate transactions have a degree of unpredictability to them. When you remove professional real estate agents from the process, things can get a little more chaotic. 

To switch to the first person for a second, when I was buying my first house, I was eying a property that was a FSBO listing. After some tense negotiations, we finally had a deal. The sellers were a married couple; the house was in the wife’s name, but the husband didn’t want to sell. 

Then things got weird. Even though the listing included a commission being paid to the buyer’s agent, the sellers started trying to weasel out of that clause. After more back and forth, the seller ultimately withdrew from the deal. It was an emotional rollercoaster and a waste of time.

When two real estate agents are involved in a deal, they work together to bring it to the finish line expediently. There’s less likelihood of funny business.

The benefits of FSBO for buyers

While people often think of FSBO transactions as being beneficial to the seller, there are some advantages for savvy buyers who can navigate the process and execute a transaction. 

Less competition

From a homebuyer’s perspective, an FSBO transaction means less competition because the property is usually not included in MLS listings. With less competition comes greater negotiation power, which means you could wind up with a better deal.

Personal connection

When dealing directly with a buyer, you can connect more personally. This can establish trust and understanding and help reach a price that both parties can agree to. 

To illustrate, suppose you need a family home in a safe neighborhood with a decent school system. You discover a seller who wants to see their home go to a family that will appreciate the property and put it to good use. In this case, forming a connection with the buyer could help facilitate an easier sale. 

Direct negotiation

In an FSBO transaction, you or your real estate agent can negotiate directly with the seller. This can potentially lead to more flexible and personalized negotiations without someone standing in the way and potentially complicating the process.

The challenges of FSBO

Despite offering a more direct and intimate buying experience, FSBO has several challenges and drawbacks for buyers. Here are a few reasons why buyers tend to struggle when they buy directly from an owner.

Negotiating without third-party representation

The negotiation process goes more smoothly when two licensed real estate professionals with experience closing deals are the ones doing it. In FSBO deals, the buyer may be disadvantaged if the seller has more knowledge or experience negotiating. 

Some buyers may also be uneasy about working with sellers without a neutral third party. This can create trust issues, making it harder to reach a deal. Sellers also may not provide as accurate or trustworthy disclosures. Unfortunately, verifying disclosures on your own may be challenging.

Having less market information

Real estate agents have deeper access to market data and local economic conditions than you do. That being the case, it’s typically much more challenging for buyers to determine a property’s actual value. 

Buyers who choose to move forward with FSBO transactions should consider going in with as much data as possible. Even better, consult with local authorities for information about the property and surrounding area. 

Handling emotional attachment 

Selling a home can be an emotional experience, making it hard to negotiate from a business standpoint. It’s common for sellers to throw curveballs into the equation by changing prices or terms, being flakey, and otherwise attempting to back out of deals.

FAQs for FSBO homes

Thinking about pursuing a FSBO property. Here are some answers to commonly asked questions.

Are foreclosures different from FSBO transactions?

A foreclosure is a different type of transaction. It occurs a homeowner defaults on their mortgage payments and the lender takes legal action to repossess the property and recover their outstanding debt. While a homeowner may choose an FSBO sale to save money, it does not necessarily mean they are financially distressed or in danger of foreclosure. 

How does an FSBO impact the buyer’s agent?

As a buyer, you can still work with an agent when purchasing an FSBO property. However, it’s up to the property owner to decide whether to negotiate with a real estate agent and pay them a commission. 

If you decide to use a buyer’s agent during an FSBO transaction, ensuring that the seller will agree to an agent commission ahead of time is critical. Sellers often try to get out of paying buying agents, leading to disputes and legal issues. 

Do mortgage lenders accept FSBO transactions?

Lenders do accept FSBO transactions. As such, you’ll still have to go through the normal mortgage application process.

Without a real estate agent, the lender will most likely require an independent appraisal to ensure the property’s value and sale price are accurate before issuing a loan. You can also expect the lender to complete a title search, review the contract and other documentation, and verify proof of funds for the down payment and closing costs. The lender may also need to work with the seller to get documentation and complete the mortgage process. 

What consumer protection services are available to buyers during an FSBO sale?

All purchasers are entitled to various consumer protections to ensure a fair and secure homebuying process. This includes the right to review property disclosures, inspection contingencies, financing contingencies, and the right to conduct a title search. 

In addition, buyers can hire a real estate attorney to review the purchase contract and use a neutral third-party escrow service to hold funds. FSBO sellers must also comply with state and federal consumer protection laws, and fair housing laws which prohibit discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, disability, national origin, or familial status.

What is a flat fee MLS listing?

A flat fee MLS listing is a real estate service that allows homeowners to list their properties in an MLS database for a one-time, flat fee instead of paying the traditional commission fees to realtors.

The bottom line: Should you buy an FSBO house for sale?

The vast majority of real estate transactions take place between licensed real estate agents. But during your search, you may find a dream house listing in a top market like New York, Chicago, or California with an FSBO acronym attached to it. Should that happen, only you can decide whether you want to move forward with this type of process. 

While FSBO transactions are more challenging, they can be a walk in the park if both sides come to the table organized and ready to make a deal. It all depends on the property, the seller’s mindset and strategy, and the buyer’s willingness to negotiate and ask the right questions. 

We get it: Buying a property is tricky, and there are countless pitfalls along the way. While research can help, sometimes sites like don’t tell the full story about a property. 

Before you start searching for your first property, we recommend checking out our free guide for first-time homebuyers.

Homeowner Real Estate

Is Well Water Safe to Drink?

When you’re buying a home, it’s easy to get caught up in focusing on things like a property’s appearance, price, and location. But homebuyers also need to carefully consider other factors, like the water you’ll have access to.

Unless you’re a robot or an advanced artificial intelligence algorithm, you need water to survive.  After all, water permeates almost every part of our lives. We use it for drinking, cooking, cleaning, growing plants and vegetables, and countless other tasks — which is why it’s critical to have access to clean, affordable, and reliable tap water that comes out of a faucet at your new place. 

When you’re buying a new home, you have the choice between whether you’ll be drinking and cleaning with well water or city water. Read on to learn what well water is, how it works, its pros and cons, and important safety considerations. 

What is well water?

Well water originates from a deep hole or shaft beneath the surface of the ground. It can come from different underground sources like aquifers, where water sits in permeable rock formations or porous materials such as sand or gravel. 

Not everyone in the United States has access to well water. Roughly 43 million people — 15% of the U.S. population — use private domestic wells as their source of drinking water. In most cases, you’ll find well water in rural or suburban areas that lack municipal infrastructure. 

While it’s possible to install a well in an urban environment, you’ll likely need to obtain permits, licensing, and inspections to install one.

What is city water?

City water comes from a municipal water system. Such systems contain water that originates from local sources like lakes, rivers, underground wells, and reservoirs. The sources that contribute to each city’s water system vary by location. 

Unlike well water, city water goes through several rounds of treatment and sanitation to ensure it’s safe for consumption and other uses. 

Some examples include: 

  • Sedimentation, where water sits in large basins, heavier particles sink to the bottom, and clean water rises to the top.
  • Filtration, which involves passing water through sand, gravel, and carbon filters to remove impurities. 
  • Disinfection, the process of using chlorine and chloramine to kill harmful microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, and parasites. 
  • pH adjustment, which involves adjusting the pH level of the water to optimize taste and reduce corrosion in the distribution system.  

When using public water systems, homeowners have little to no direct say as to how the city stores, treats, and transports water. So, if you’re considering purchasing a home that uses city water, you’ll want to research local water and infrastructure quality to ensure it’s safe. You may also need to invest in private filtration systems to purify the water before use. 

For guidance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers abundant water data and reports that you can use to find information about water quality in your community.

How does a well work?

Unlike a municipal water system, a well generates water on-site — meaning it’s a private, decentralized mechanism and the property of the homeowner.

A well contains several mechanisms, including: 

  • Casing to ensure structural integrity and prevent the well from collapsing; well casing may include steel or PVC.
  • Screens, which allow water to enter the well while keeping out debris and larger particles.
  • Pumps that collect water and bring it to the surface; the two most common types of pumps are submersible pumps and jet pumps, which rest above ground.
  • Holding tanks — or cisterns — which store water before transporting it to the house for drinking, irrigation, or other household needs. 

The depth of the well depends on the location of the underground aquifer or water table, or the point where the ground becomes saturated with water. 

Three types of wells to know about

There are several types of wells in the U.S. which can vary depending on the region and geology. As you continue the homebuying process, it’s important to have some familiarity with the most common kinds of wells. 

1. Drilled wells

Drilled wells — which are built using a drilling rig — are the most common type of well for U.S. homes. They reach deep into the earth to access groundwater. Depending on the location, drilled wells can run from a few tens of feet to hundreds or even thousands of feet. 

2. Dug wells

Dug wells are shallow wells that are excavated either by hand or machine. They typically contain a wall of stones, bricks, concrete, or tiles. Most dug wells are less than 30 feet deep. 

3. Driven wells

Driven wells use pipes and casing to reach water tables. These are common in areas with sandy or loose soil and in areas with shallow water supplies. 

Some less common wells you may want to research a bit include mechanically bored wells, hand-dug wells, and jetted wells, which use high-pressure water or air to force the casing into the ground. 

What are the pros and cons of having private well water?

The pros

  • Well water comes directly from underground sources like aquifers or water tables. Because of this, wells are often free from additives like chlorine and fluoride.
  • Since well water doesn’t usually rely on chemicals, it may have a fresher and more natural taste than city water — especially if you use an additional filtration system.
  • Well water systems often use little to no energy. As a result, they have a lower environmental impact than large-scale water treatment and distribution systems.
  • With proper management and maintenance, wells can be sustainable water sources. However, monitoring your well and practicing responsible water use is essential for ensuring sustainability. This is especially important in areas with water scarcity and high demand.
  • Using a well means your home won’t rely on a municipal water system. As a result, you can continue receiving water during local emergencies and outages — as long as your property and well infrastructure remain intact, that is. 
  • As a well owner, you have control over your own water supply. This means you can test your water for quality whenever you want. You can also make adjustments to improve its quality and monitor its usage — like installing a reverse osmosis system or a UV water purifier

The cons

  • Wells are vulnerable to droughts. For example, many wells in Texas are currently running dry following the state’s recent heat wave. 
  • Contaminants can enter wells from nearby septic systems or agricultural runoff. Drinking contaminated well water can lead to serious illness. Common contaminants include coliform bacteria, microorganisms, radium, heavy metals, organic chemicals, fertilizers, radionuclides, and fluoride. Well systems can also be contaminated by human activities.
  • As a homeowner, you must manage and maintain your well water. But not all homeowners want the responsibility of keeping their water supply up and running, and that’s perfectly okay. If you prefer a more hands-off approach, city water may be a better option.
  • Owning a well can potentially limit your ability to build other structures on your property. When buying a home, find out where the well resides to avoid construction disturbances and delays down the road. Of course, you can always relocate the well to accommodate construction plans. But that’s about as easy and affordable as it sounds.
  • Wells are vulnerable to contaminants from disasters like floods and hurricanes. For guidance, check out the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) safety precautions for disinfecting wells after a disaster.
  • If your water has high levels of magnesium and calcium ions, this can lead to water hardness and issues like limescale buildup in appliances and pipes. Well owners with hard water may need to use water softeners; otherwise their pipes and appliances can degrade, potentially leading to catastrophic problems. 

Is well water safe?

New homeowners often assume that wells are perfectly safe to drink from. But without the proper treatment, they can contain high levels of harmful substances — like E. coli, pesticides, heavy metals, harmful bacteria, and animal waste. Consuming contaminated water can lead to gastrointestinal illness and other health risks. In fact, a recent United States Geological Survey (USGS) study reveals that roughly 23% of wells contain one or more contaminants at a level that can cause potential health effects.  

Considering this, well water can still be perfectly safe to consume and use around the house — as long as you follow the right safety protocols. Well water safety depends on the following factors.

The surrounding environment 

It’s important to consider the well’s location. Wells that are near septic systems, hazardous waste centers, and industrial sites can potentially be unsafe due to pollutants. Homeowners in such situations should take active measures to fortify their wells and potentially add additional filtration and purification methods.

The well’s construction 

Proper well construction is necessary for maintaining superior drinking water quality. The well must contain a seal to prevent surface water from getting inside and contaminating it. 

Proper maintenance 

Wells can degrade over time or break due to movement from the earth or nearby construction. As such, it’s critical to inspect your well periodically and keep up with maintenance. Wells that sit for long periods of time without inspection or upkeep can become unsafe.

Treatment options for well water contaminants

While it’s impossible to completely prevent wells from contamination, there are several things you can do to remove or reduce the presence of harmful substances. 

  • Reverse osmosis is an effective water purification method for removing contaminants like minerals, nitrates, nitrites, pesticides, bacteria, and viruses. It involves passing water through a semipermeable membrane to remove impurities and cleanse the water. Typically, reverse osmosis systems are located either in the house or near the point of use.
  • Aeration is a purification method that involves releasing air into the water. You can use aeration to eliminate radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. 
  • Water filtration systems can remove things like sediment, chlorine, and other common contaminants. They come in various forms like sediment, carbon, and multimedia water filters. Filtration systems sit either in the house or at the point of use. 
  • Well water testing can help identify different contaminants and inform you about your water quality. Generally speaking, it’s wise to hire a professional to test your water in a certified laboratory. It’s a good idea to get test results regularly — and especially in the event you detect a change in water color, taste, or odor. 
  • Ion exchange systems use resin beads to eliminate ions like manganese, iron, and hardness minerals. An ion exchange system replaces these with harmless ions, like sodium. 
  • Oxidation and filtration is yet another method to remove things like iron and hydrogen sulfide. This process involves converting substances into solid particles and then filtering them out.
  • Chemical disinfection (e.g., with chlorine) can kill microorganisms and bacteria in well water. However, some chemicals can be less effective against things like protozoa and parasites. To ensure safety, always use proper dosing and monitor your water quality. 
  • Distillation involves heating water in order to create steam and then condensing it back into liquid. This is a great way to remove contaminants like heavy metals and chemicals. 

Maintenance costs for wells

One of the nice parts about having a drinking water well is that you don’t have to pay monthly usage fees. On average, residential customers in the U.S. pay around $54 per month for water. But in some areas like California, water can exceed $80 per month. 

That said, well owners still need to factor in maintenance costs which can eat into savings over time. Here are some costs to keep in mind.


To ensure your well is functioning properly, you need to schedule routine inspections. During an inspection, a technician will inspect your well and ensure components like casing, pumps, and seals are in proper condition. The cost of a well inspection depends on your location, the well size, and the extent of the inspection.

Water testing

In addition to inspecting a well system, you’ll also need to test the water regularly. This is necessary for detecting and eliminating harmful contaminants — and otherwise making sure your water is safe to drink and won’t corrode your pipes.  


Wells may experience wear and tear as time passes, requiring extensive repairs. For example, you may need to repair or replace pump mechanisms or well casing. If the pump runs on electricity, you might need to replace components like pressure switches or control boxes.

Well cleaning

Wells can collect sediment and bacteria over time which can adversely impact water quality. Homeowners should periodically clean their well to keep it running in optimal condition.


Wells that have contamination issues may require resealing or sanitation. Costs for this kind of work can vary depending on the scope of the job. 


In some cases, local health departments or other agencies may require homeowners to relocate their wells due to public safety issues, zoning and land use regulations, contamination concerns, or infrastructure development, among other things. This isn’t common, but if it happens, it can require extensive consultations, assessments, and negotiations to address. Unfortunately, in some instances, the homeowner may have to foot part or even all of the bill. 


The lifespan of a well depends on its type, local geology, and how well it’s taken care of. For example, a drilled well with proper installation and maintenance can potentially last for around 100 years. On the other hand, a driven well may only last 10 to 30 years. 

With this in mind, check the age of a well before buying a house to see if it will require replacement under your care. Replacing a well may be expensive, but it can also enhance your property’s value. 

Should you choose well water or city water?

There’s no right or wrong answer. It largely depends on where you want to live and whether you care about having to manage a well after purchasing a property. While maintaining a well might seem complex, it’s actually pretty simple with the right guidance, budgeting, and maintenance strategy.

At this point, you have a decision to make: Take on the responsibility of owning a well or opt for city water and a more hands-off approach to water management. 

Struggling to decide which option is right for you? Home Approach is standing by to advise. To receive a consultation from one of our experts, sign up today

Homeowner Real Estate

What are HOA fees?

Before you become a homeowner, it’s essential to think about how much responsibility you want to have when it comes to managing your property. 

Are you the type of person who likes to mow their lawn on a Saturday afternoon, cold beverage in hand? Or would you rather write a check and have someone else worry about it?

If you prefer a more hands-off approach to homeownership, you may want to look to buy a property that’s part of a homeowner’s association (HOA). 

In this post, we’ll examine how HOAs work, what they cover, why they’re important, and how much you can expect to pay should you become part of an HOA community.

What is a homeowner’s association?

An HOA is an organization or entity that manages a community or residential development like a condominium or neighborhood. They typically are managed by an HOA board of directors, which includes elected members who live in the community. Most communities have HOA elections each year.

HOAs are responsible for overseeing various responsibilities, including infrastructure, aesthetics, maintenance, and shared common areas within a community. They act on behalf of the property owners and work to keep the community fair, orderly, and under budget. 

In addition, associations enforce HOA rules, or covenants, conditions, and restrictions (CC&Rs). These governing documents keep the community in proper condition and help residents avoid conflicts because everyone knows what’s expected. 

Today, roughly 22% of homes participate in an HOA — a figure that has remained consistent over the last decade.

What are HOA fees?

Homeowners association fees are regular payments homeowners who live in HOA communities have to pay. In most cases, homeowners distribute monthly dues to cover the costs of managing and maintaining the common areas and shared amenities within the community.

In some cases, HOA fees may also cover utilities like water, electricity, and cable or internet. However, HOAs can vary across different communities. Before purchasing a property, be sure to find out what your HOA fees cover so that you don’t wind up overpaying for services. 

Are HOA fees mandatory?

HOA fees are generally mandatory for homeowners who live in a community or development with an HOA association. By purchasing a property within a condominium or community association, you automatically become an HOA member and must pay monthly HOA dues.

While you cannot buy your way out of an HOA, there are some scenarios where homeowners can gain a bit more control over their properties. For example, some communities offer non-mandatory HOAs with optional memberships and fees. However, non-members may not be able to access common amenities like community pools or fitness facilities. 

In some cases, the homeowners in an established community may also vote to dissolve their HOA. However, this is rare and typically requires both a majority vote and legal counseling.

If you do not wish to participate in a community with an HOA, the easiest thing to do is purchase a property that’s not part of one. 

HOA fees vs. special assessments

Homeowners in HOA communities contribute financially to the area’s upkeep through both HOA fees and special assessments. However, these are different types of expenses.

Special assessments are one-time or occasional payments that homeowners must make in addition to paying HOA fees. They typically occur when the HOA faces unexpected or significant expenses that exceed what is available in the association’s reserve fund or budget. 

For example, a special assessment may cover major repairs, capital improvement projects, and emergency maintenance like roof replacements.  

What do HOA fees cover?

The specific services that an HOA covers can vary depending on the community’s rules and regulations. But in general, you can expect your HOA fees to cover the following. 


HOA fees typically include insurance coverage for shared structures and common areas. They also include liability coverage for the association.

Security and surveillance

In some communities, HOAs help ensure safety. They may provide security cameras, arrange private security patrols, or restrict access to the community (e.g., with a gate). 

Exterior maintenance 

HOAs often cover exterior maintenance like roofing, siding, painting, parking lots, and structural repairs. They also typically pay for a property management company to oversee maintenance operations.

Administrative expenses 

A portion of the HOA fee goes toward the association’s administrative costs. This may include things like hiring staff members, purchasing office equipment, and paying vendors. 


Communities often have shared amenities like tennis courts, swimming pools, clubhouses, and fitness centers. HOA fees help keep them up and running.

Common area maintenance 

Fees also cover costs associated with maintaining common areas like community gardens, parks, walking trails, green spaces, and playgrounds.

Utilities and services

In some communities, HOAs manage utilities like cable, internet, and electricity. This can make life easier for homeowners by consolidating their bills into one easy monthly payment. 

Reserve funds

HOAs use reserve funds to cover the cost of major repairs, renovations, and expenses. 

HOA vs. no HOA: Cost comparison

Many homebuyers balk at the idea of paying into an HOA at first. But that changes when they do some quick budgeting and think about all of the expenses they might otherwise have to pay entirely on their own. As it turns out, an HOA can actually save you money if it’s affordable. 

With that in mind, here’s a breakdown of some common services that an HOA covers that you’d have to pay for out of your own pocket as a homeowner. 

Swimming pools 

Condominiums and HOAs often have private swimming pools. If you buy a home that doesn’t have an HOA and you want a pool, you will need to cover all the costs associated with maintaining a pool — like water, cleaning, chemicals, and routine maintenance. You may also have to pay more for your homeowner’s insurance policy, too.


It takes a lot to keep a yard looking good. If you want to maintain your property yourself, you’ll need to purchase tools and equipment like lawnmowers, shovels, rakes, and trimmers. Otherwise, you’ll have to hire a landscaper. If your property has trees or other natural resources, you will need to care for those as well. If you live where it snows a lot, you’ll also have to pay to clear your driveway.

HOA fees typically cover landscaping costs as well as snow removal during the winter months — saving you time and money. 

Upkeep and repairs

Without an HOA, you’ll be responsible for keeping up both the interior and exterior of your property. This includes things like painting, ensuring your roof and chimney are in good shape, pest control, and maintaining your walkways and driveway.

Do HOA fees build equity?

Equity is the difference between the market value of your property and what you owe to the bank. Unfortunately, HOA fees do not directly build equity for a homeowner like mortgage payments do. That’s because HOA fees go to the HOA association — not the lender that owns your mortgage.

That said, HOA payments can directly impact your property value. When an HOA is doing a great job at managing the community, HOA fees can potentially boost your equity, albeit indirectly. As a result, it’s critical to purchase a property with a responsible and financially secure HOA that is committed to doing its best to increase the value of community properties.

How HOA fees impact taxes

Unfortunately, HOA fees are generally not tax-deductible for homeowners. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) views HOA fees as personal living expenses instead of tax-deductible expenses. 

Despite this, there are exceptions where you can write off a portion of your HOA fees on your taxes. Some examples include owning a rental property within an HOA community, claiming a home office deduction, or when the HOA assesses special fees or assessments for capital improvements.

Do HOA fees increase over time?

Just like pretty much everything else in life, HOAs generally increase over time. For example, you might purchase a property and pay $350 per month in HOA fees at first. But down the line, it’s possible that those costs could balloon to $500 or more due to any of the following factors. 

Inflation and cost of value 

The price of goods and services tends to increase over time due to inflation and the cost of living. HOAs often need to adjust their fees to cover the rising cost of labor, materials, utilities, and other expenses. 

Aging infrastructure 

Large planned communities require a variety of infrastructure like roads, fences, drainage systems, docks, grills, and benches. HOAs may sometimes raise their fees to fund capital improvement projects or fund repairs. 

Market conditions

HOAs are also subject to changing economic conditions in the real estate market. HOAs sometimes increase fees to make up for revenue shortfalls when property values plummet.

Reserve fund planning 

Part of the HOA’s job is to review and adjust reserve fund contributions. The HOA may occasionally raise their fees to ensure financial stability and prepare for emergencies.

Insurance and legal costs

Insurance premiums tend to rise over time, which can impact homeowners’ wallets. In addition, HOAs sometimes must budget for legal disputes.

When purchasing a property with an HOA, you should ask your real estate agent for a breakdown of average HOA payments for your target property. This will help you understand how the HOA’s fees have changed over time, giving you a sense of where they might be heading. 

Average HOA fees: How much can I expect to pay?

Monthly HOA fees can range from a few hundred to thousands of dollars. Right now, the average cost for HOA fees in the U.S. is around $300 per month. But depending on where you end up moving, it can be much higher. With that in mind, let’s take a look at some of the key factors that determine the total cost of an HOA fee. 


The location of your property will directly impact what you pay as an HOA fee. For example, HOA fees tend to be higher in urban areas like New York City or Miami, as well as upscale neighborhoods, tourist spots, and vacation destinations. 


The more amenities you have, the more you can expect to pay in HOA costs. If your community has three or four swimming pools, a golf course, or a modern fitness center, your bill will be significantly higher.

Oftentimes, homeowners wind up paying for services that they occasionally use — like the swimming pool they jump in a couple of times during the summer. Before buying a home, take a look at what you’re paying for and determine whether it’s worth the cost.

Property type

The type of property that you own may also impact what you pay in HOA fees. For example, condominiums and townhouses are usually more expensive than single-family homes because they contain shared areas and amenities. On the other hand, a shared home HOA may only cover things like landscaping, security, snow removal, trash removal, and other basic services, resulting in a lower monthly price.

Community size

Large communities with 10 or 20 buildings tend to have higher HOA fees than smaller ones. That’s because they tend to have more shared spaces, more amenities, and more properties to look after. Larger communities are also more prone to lawsuits, which can result in higher payments.  

The HOA’s financial health

HOAs that lack adequate reserves and efficient planning tend to have less stable fees and higher expenses. Working with a well-managed and ethical HOA can help keep costs under control. 

Tips for managing HOA fees

Whenever you’re joining a new community, you’ll want to stay on top of monthly payments so you don’t draw the ire of your new neighbors or your HOA. Missing payments can also result in collections notices, late fees, and legal actions. Here are some tips that can help you avoid conflicts and enjoy a better quality of life.

Attend HOA meetings

By attending monthly HOA meetings, you can stay on top of community issues and voice your opinion about monthly fees and potential increases. If you can’t attend HOA meetings, ask about digital resources like community bulletins, newsletters, and user dashboards.

Keep a careful record of payments

HOA payments will add up over time, so it’s a good idea to track your overall spending. Keeping careful records can also help clear up discrepancies when they arise. If possible, consider using an online portal so that all payments are recorded in one place.

Budget for payments 

It’s important to be realistic about whether you can afford your monthly HOA payment in addition to all of the other fees you’ll have as a homeowner — like mortgage payments, property taxes, utilities, food, furniture, and insurance. Your HOA payment should fit comfortably within your budget and still leave you enough room for a decent quality of life. 

As a best practice, budget a bit higher to account for any changes to HOA fees or special assessments that may be coming down the road. Pro tip: Always set aside a portion of your savings to cover unexpected expenses. 

Demystify HOA fees with Home Approach

Buying a house can be an overwhelming experience with many different figures and details to consider. If you’re having a hard time understanding what it means to join an HOA, that’s perfectly normal.

That said, HOA payments are a critical piece of the financial puzzle when assessing home prices. For further guidance, we recommend scheduling a consultation with one of Home Approach’s expert advisors. Our professionals are well-versed in the intricacies of HOAs and can provide valuable insights to help you make informed decisions.

To gain a deeper understanding of HOA fees and access personalized guidance, sign up for  Home Approach today.

1st Time Homebuyer Homeowner Real Estate

Septic vs. Sewer: What Homeowners Need to Know

If you’re like most people, you probably don’t spend much time thinking about wastewater. 

But when you’re buying a new home, it’s a good idea to understand the essential role that wastewater management plays in maintaining a healthy, sustainable, and efficient living space. In fact, when it boils down to it, wastewater management is one of the most important considerations you need to make during the homebuying process. 

That’s because homes quietly churn out substantial amounts of wastewater every day. Believe it or not, the average household in the United States produces around 138 gallons of wastewater each day from places like the tap, shower, washing machine, toilet, and dishwasher. To put things in perspective, that’s roughly seven standard bathtubs full of water. 

But where does it all go? 

There are two primary methods of dealing with household wastewater: septic and sewer systems. Ultimately, your home’s wastewater management system will directly impact your daily life, maintenance routine, and long-term expenses. 

With all this in mind, let’s plunge deeper into the topic of septic versus sewer systems and explore how they work, their main differences, and their financial impact.

What is a septic system?

A septic system is a decentralized or localized method of treating and removing wastewater. With this type of system, all wastewater management takes place independently on the property without connecting to a central or municipal sewer. 

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), more than one in five households in the U.S. depend on individual septic or small community cluster system for wastewater treatment.

Septic systems are common in suburban and rural areas that lack access to public sewer systems. Some cities allow homeowners to install private septic systems, although this isn’t very common.

How does a septic system work?

Septic systems funnel household waste into a single underground tank for treatment and removal. 

Sewage enters the tank from the house through a pipe and flows into a general basin where it goes through a separation process. Solid waste — like toilet paper and organic matter — sinks to the bottom of the tank and forms a layer of sludge. Lighter materials like oils and fats float to the top of the tank and generate a layer of scum. 

The partially treated liquid that remains in the middle layer exits through a separate outlet pipe. This liquid contains special microbes and natural bacteria that break down and digest the organic matter, further treating the wastewater. 

After exiting the septic tank, the effluent flows into a drain field — or leach field — for absorption. At this point, the water moves through a network of surrounding pipes and gravel and eventually returns to the soil which acts as a filter by removing harmful pollutants and pathogens. Eventually, the water becomes compatible with the groundwater and the local environment.

The pros and cons of using a septic system

The pros 

  • When you have a septic system, you don’t have to pay monthly sewer fees, which could lead to potential savings. 
  • Septic systems tend to be more environmentally friendly than centralized sewer systems. This is mainly because they use natural biological processes to break down waste. They also require less energy.
  • Septic systems operate independently from centralized sewage networks. This gives the homeowner more control over things like maintenance, repairs, and upgrades. 
  • Septic systems provide effective wastewater management in rural or remote areas where centralized sewers are not available.

The cons 

  • It can be cost-prohibitive to install or replace a septic system. By one estimate, the average cost of a septic tank installation is around $7,000 while a complete septic system can run anywhere from $10,000 to $25,000. That said, with proper maintenance, the lifespan of a septic system is generally around 20 to 40 years or longer.
  • Septic tanks are prone to operational failure due to inadequate maintenance, excessive water usage, and improper installation. They can also clog from excessive solids.
  • Septic tanks can potentially contaminate surface and groundwater without proper installation or maintenance. This can lead to significant health risks. In addition, septic systems can produce foul odors when they malfunction, and also when they’re cleaned.
  • A poorly functioning system can negatively impact your property value. Buyers may be unwilling to purchase a property with an outdated or unreliable septic system that’s prone to backing up.
  • You’ll need to find reliable and cost-effective plumbers and septic system companies to help with ongoing maintenance and inspections. Not all companies are reliable or trustworthy, and picking the wrong vendor can lead to costly mistakes. 

What is a sewer system?

A sewer system is a network of pipes and infrastructure for collecting, moving, and treating wastewater. Public sewer systems serve homes, businesses, and public communities. 

Unlike a decentralized septic tank, all sewer processing takes place off-property at a dedicated treatment facility. 

Sewer systems mainly exist in urban and suburban areas where houses and properties are close together. 

How does a sewer system work?

In a sewer system, all wastewater flows through pipes into a main drain pipe — or house sewer — which runs from the house to the municipal line. The municipal sewer line moves wastewater from multiple homes and buildings into a central treatment plant. 

When water enters the wastewater treatment plant, it goes through a series of cleansing processes to remove pollutants, contaminants, and harmful materials. This includes physical, biological, and chemical methods. After the water is clean, it flows back into the environment.

The pros and cons of using a public sewer

The pros

  • Public sewers offer a convenient and reliable way for homeowners to manage wastewater. Homeowners don’t have to worry about things like septic tank pumping, installation, or maintenance, which saves time and money.
  • Homes that connect to a public sewer system may have a higher property value; there aren’t any septic system costs to consider. Buyers often view properties that have reliable and well-maintained systems more favorably.
  • Sewer systems prevent the need to have on-site wastewater storage. This prevents foul odors and unsightly backups.
  • By using a sewer system, homeowners can avoid navigating septic system regulations and permitting processes. When you connect your home to a city or municipal sewer system, you hand over the responsibility of wastewater management to the local municipality, sparing yourself from having to maintain a private septic system.

The cons

  • Homeowners still need to maintain the sewer lateral — the piping that connects their property to a main sewer line. These sewer pipes can occasionally clog and lead to backups that require professional repairs. 
  • Homes that connect to city sewer systems become dependent on them for wastewater removal. If a system fails to work, it can impact the property and take time to resolve.
  • Local governments are responsible for wastewater treatment. Homeowners do not have direct control over their effectiveness and environmental impact. 
  • Sewer systems traverse congested urban areas, making them more vulnerable to external disruptions like construction, accidents, and utility conflicts. 

Septic tanks vs. city sewer: Maintenance costs

As a homeowner, you’re going to wind up paying for wastewater maintenance whether you purchase a property with a septic tank or one that’s plugged into the public sewer system. There’s no getting around it. 

Even so, understanding the differences in maintenance costs and responsibilities can help you make a decision that best suits your preferences, needs, and budget. 

With that in mind, let’s take a closer look at how maintenance costs differ between septic tanks and city sewers. 

Septic tank maintenance costs


Septic tanks require routine pumping in order to eliminate scum and solid waste. Failure to remove waste can lead to clogs and overflow.

Septic tank pumping frequency depends on the size of your tank, water usage, and household size. So, if you opt for a smaller tank to save money, you may wind up paying more over time in pumping fees.

When buying a home, it helps to think about how long you intend to stay in the property. If you’re planning to move again in three to five years, you might be able to avoid having to pump your tank — particularly if you have a larger tank and only two people live in the house.


It’s critical to inspect your tank regularly for leaks, damage, and proper functionality. Inspection frequency depends on local regulations and the age of your system. Most homeowners inspect their tanks every one to three years. 

Repairs and replacements

Septic systems require routine repairs or replacements due to issues like clogs, damage, and filters. Keeping up with routine maintenance can help avoid costly repairs.  

Sewer system maintenance costs

Monthly fees

Most municipalities charge taxpayers to use public sewer systems, and the average U.S. sewer bill is $66.80 per month. However, this can vary depending on water usage, the availability of local water supplies, and location. 

Connection fees

If your property doesn’t have a connection to a sewer system, you’ll need to pay a hookup fee to access public lines. This fee covers the cost of extending the sewer from the property to the main network.

In most cases, local governments don’t directly charge for sewer abandonment or disconnecting from a network. However, you may wind up paying indirectly for disconnection permits, plumbing changes, and inspections. Disconnecting from a sewer may also negatively impact your property value.

Permit fees and inspections

Some municipalities charge homeowners to connect to local sewer systems or perform repairs or construction. You may also need to pay for local inspections to ensure compliance with building and safety codes.

Sewer lateral and service

While homeowners don’t need to maintain public sewer infrastructure, they are typically responsible for the sewer service line that connects their property to the main sewer line. This can require maintenance, repairs, or replacements.

Need some advice? Home Approach is here to help

As you can see, wastewater management is a big topic of concern for home buyers — and something that requires careful consideration. Both options have pros and cons, making it difficult to determine which is right for your specific needs. 

Home Approach specializes in helping home buyers like you navigate the first-time purchasing process. Our experts specialize in breaking down complex real estate topics so they’re easy for you to understand. If you’re on the fence about whether to go with a home that has its own septic system or one that’s connected to a public sewer system, Home Approach can provide guidance and support. 

Ready for a consultation? Sign up for Home Approach and speak with an expert today.